ED. Pinaud, Paris

Not far from Paris, on the Ourcq Canal, is the thriving town of Pantin, famous for the works of Ed. Pinaud, where is manufactured the delightful perfumery which has made its name so widely known.

That’s the opening paragraph of an October, 1893 Merck Report feature on Ed. Pinaud. A French perfume and cosmetics line originally founded by Edouard Pinard, their brand strength was and continues to be such that, although produced for almost two centuries and under several different company names, the brand name “Pinaud” has remained steadfast.

There are several different versions of Pinaud’s early history, but I’ll stick with the one presented on the web site of Washington D. C.’s Dumberton Oaks Research Library and Collection.

Ed. Pinaud (Ed. Pinaud’s Perfumery) is a Parisian perfume and cosmetics company founded by Edouard Pinaud (1810 to 1868) in 1830 at 37, boulevard de Strasbourg, Paris. He named the business A la Corbelle Fleurie. In the 1850’s, Emile Meyer (1817 to 1888) became a partner and opened a second shop called Parfumerie de la Noblesse. After Pinaud’s death, his son-in-law, Victor Klotz (1836 to 1906) took over the company, which was renamed Victor Klotz et Cie although its products were sold under the Ed. Pinaud name.

The 1893 Merck feature hinted at the size of the Paris operation just before the turn of the century.

To return to the factory at Pantin, which is an imposing building, we find that no less than 200 hands are employed, and, if that does not give an idea of the magnitude of the business transacted, the sight of several private freight cars bearing the firm’s name, most assuredly do so.

The presence of Pinaud’s products in the United States dates back as least as far as the mid-1840’s. The earliest Pinaud reference I can find was in a newspaper advertisement for the business of G. Saunders & Son, located at 177 Broadway in New York City. Printed in several October and November, 1845 editions of the Hartford (Conn.) Courant, the advertisements touted cosmetic and shaving products under a wide range of categories one of which was “perfumery,” where it stated:

PERFUMERY – The most choice of Guerlain’s, Lubin’s, Prevost’s, Ede’s, Patey’s, Roussel’s and Pinaud’s Extracts, with a full assortment of Perfumery, in boxes suitable for presents.

This October 13, 1855 Brooklyn Evening Star advertisement for a company called the McNary Brothers mentioned Pinaud products “Cosmetique” and “Almond Soap” by name.

Back then Pinaud’s business in the U. S. was with firms like G. Saunders & Son and McNary Brothers who apparently imported the company’s products directly from Paris. That being said, there was no orchestrated plan for growth in this country. According to Merck’s 1893 feature that all began to change in the late 1870’s.

Long ago demand for the Ed. Pinaud’s goods necessitated the establishment of branch offices in London, Brussels, St. Petersburg, Melbourne, and other leading cities of the world; but, strange to say, only within the last seventeen years has the house been represented in this country. Their first New York office was at 10 Cortlandt Street, subsequently moved to 496 Broadway; but very little business was done, and our visitors to Europe continued to bring back dainty bottles of Ed. Pinaud’s perfumery, sachets, and sweetly odorous soaps as Parisian souvenirs, in ignorance that they could have purchased them here.

In May 1890, the agency was transformed into a branch house with Emile Utard in charge, and soon after “Parfumerie Ed. Pinaud” was a sign which became naturalized and the goods, once being known, leaped into popular favor.

The 10 Cortlandt Street address was actually the address of Henry Dreyfus & Co., who was listed there (sometimes 6 Cortlandt St.) as a perfumer (sometimes importer) from 1880 up through 1887. In a series of 1886 advertisements that ran in several U. S. cities they referred to themselves as Ed. Pinaud’s “sole agent for the United States.”

 

During the same time Dreyfus also listed another another office in Manhattan at 13 (and later 25) Maiden Lane. That office listing included the occupational heading of “diamonds,” so Pinaud’s lack of growth mentioned in the above story could certainly have been, at least partially due to Dreyfus’s other interests.

In any event, by 1890, Utard, not Dreyfus, was listed as a “perfumer,” now at the 496 Broadway address. A year later the company was listed at 42 East 14th street where they would remain until the  early 1900’s.

The feature goes on to name a wide variety of perfumes, essences, toilet preparations and perfumed toilet soaps being produced by Pinaud in the late 1890’s. Here’s an advertisement touting their “latest creations,” in the Spring, 1898.

Around the same time, a December 1897 item found in the Druggist Circular and Chemical Gazette advertised a line of extracts that included 37 scents with names like Lilly of the Valley, New Mown Hay and Spring Flowers.

Men were also in luck with a number of hair and shaving products. This December 1891 advertisement included products like “Brillantine” (for hair and moustache brilliancy and softness), “Eau De Quinine” (the king of all hair tonics), “Cosmetique” (whose reputation for excellence is universal), and “Lavender Water” (for use after shaving has no equal).

They even advertised dental products as evidenced by this December, 1897 advertisement.

Product’s Pinaud called their “leading specialties” were included in this price list published in the October, 1897 edition of the “Practical Druggist and Pharmaceutical Review of Reviews.”

The company’s growth through the turn of the century lead to their construction of a new United States headquarters in 1903. Located in Manhattan at 84 – 90  Fifth Avenue, Pinaud advertisements in the following years would mention its address as simply “the Pinaud Building.” The Brooklyn Daily Eagle described its opening in a March 6, 1903 story, referring to the new building as a “skyscraper.” (By my count it’s 11 stories.)

NEW ED. PINAUD BUILDING

On the site formerly occupied by the Old Guard Armory, the proprietor of the Ed.Pinaud perfumery has erected a skyscraper that contains all the latest devices in construction and equipment. To celebrate the opening yesterday Victor Klotz, the proprietor, tendered a reception during the afternoon to his friends and customers. The building is at Fifth Avenue and Fourteenth Street, Manhattan.

Mr. Klotz came from Paris to attend the opening. The offices, all newly fitted up and finely decorated, were adorned with French and American colors and floral pieces. A collation was served, during which corks popped merrily.

The story goes on to credit advertising for fueling much of their expansion.

The growth in popularity of Pinaud’s perfumes in the United States is due alike to their fine quality and business ability of the American manager, Emil Utard. During his incumbency of thirteen years it has necessitated a constant increase of room and facilities. Mr. Utard attributes his success to the wide and unique advertising used in popularizing Pinaud’s perfumes.

In an interview with Emile Utard, published in the February 12, 1902 edition of Printers Ink, he stated that the company began investing in advertising at the time they established their American branch in 1890. Since then, in the following twelve years, according to Utard:

The volume of our trade in America has grown six-fold since we began advertising.

The interview goes on to say that at the time they didn’t have much experience with the daily newspapers but did advertise heavily in a wide variety of magazines.

If we like the character of the publication, and have a fair estimate of its circulation, the price being right, we adopt it.

The interview also mentioned mass transit advertising.

We are, however, liberal patrons of street cars and of the elevated system. This year we are in all the surface cars of the city and on the stations of the elevated.

Another of their advertising avenues that caught my attention involved what they called “schemes.”

But really our greatest efforts, those on which we expend the most thought and have our greatest outlay, are our schemes. Among these, those that have to do with theaters engage our attention most, and yield the best results…

Concerning theaters, we own between twenty and twenty-five drop-curtains in good theaters in leading cities throughout the country. The better the theater the more benefit it is to us. Each of these curtains is a specimen of the scene painter’s art. All representing some view of the Riviera, along the Mediterranean Sea, where our flowers are grown…

Among the drop curtains of this kind that we now own are those of the Casino in this City (New York); the Alvin of Pittsburg; the Park in Boston; the Century in St. Louis; the Academy of Music in Montreal, Canada; the Chestnut Street Theater in Philadelphia; the Dallas Opera House of Dallas, Tex.; the Boyd Theater of Omaha, Neb; the Grand Opera House of New Orleans.

We perfume a great many theaters in addition. For instance, we have no less than six in this city, which we serve every night. One of our young employees makes the round and sprays the lobby before the performance and the house during the performance. We have consequent mention made of this nightly in the respective programs.

By the mid to late 1890’s, Pinaud products were  pretty much included in drug and department store advertisements nation wide. This item appeared in a May 13, 1899 department store advertisement in the Salt Lake (City, Utah) Herald.

You could even pick up a bottle of Eau de Quinine while in Helena, Montana as evidenced by this November 19, 1896 advertisement in the Anaconda (Montana) Standard.

Victor Klotz continued to run the business under the name Victor Klotz & Co. until his death in 1906. At that point his sons, Henry and George took control of the company and while the product line continued to be called Pinaud, the name of the company was changed to H & G Klotz & Co.

It was around this time that the company apparently added the daily newspapers to their advertising strategy. Between 1905 and 1908 you could see a number of celebrities including Lilian Russel touting Eau de Quinine and Lilac Vegetal in the local newspapers.

While other products were mentioned, it was these two in particular, Eau de Quinine and Lilac Vegetal that were the focal point of their advertising from the early 1900’s up through the 1920’s. In a series of advertisements in 1911 they were even offering sample bottles for five cents.

Sometime around 1927 the name of the U. S. business was changed to Pinaud, Inc., and the business moved to a new location in Manhattan at 220 East 21st Street. It appears that in addition to distribution, by this time they were also using this new facility to manufacture products as well.

By the mid 1930’s the Klotz brothers were no longer running the company, or at least the New York operation. The 1931 NYC directory named George Klotz as president of Pinaud, Inc. but by 1938 the listing of Industrial Research Laboratories of the United States named Jacques Heilbronn as President.

During the late 1930’s and early 1940’s the business was still profitable but apparently headed in the wrong direction. Court records (Perfumers Manufacturing Corporation, Transferee Petitioner, v. Commissioner of Internal Revenue, Respondent) pick up the story from there.

The business of Pinaud, Inc. had been a profitable one prior to World War II, but it suffered several reversals after the war because of its obligations , usual in the perfume and toiletry trade, to accept sizable returns of unsold merchandise from customers who had purchased and paid for its products but had failed to sell them. The volume of returns was large and Pinaud, Inc., found itself required to issue substantial merchandise credits to its customers representing a liability to deliver merchandise for which it will not be paid. To add to its difficulties, Pinaud, Inc., found itself unable to meet its cash liabilities.

The court records went on to say that Pinaud, Inc. eventually sold the business.

Pusuant to an agreement entered into on June 24, 1947, Pinaud, Inc., transferred its entire business to Ed. Pinaud, Inc. (then known as Barbara Alice, Inc.),  which was, and is, owned by persons unrelated to the owners of Pinaud, Inc…

…Ed. Pinaud, Inc. was granted the exclusive general agency to manufacture, sell and distribute “Pinaud” products for 15 years with the option to renew for additional terms of 15 years.

At this point Ed. Pinaud, Inc.,was operating under the umbrella of the Joubert group that, two years later, in 1949, merged with the Nestle-LeMur Company. The merger was announced in the July 17, 1949 edition of the Hartford (Connecticut) Courant.

Nestle-LeMur Company announces shareholders have voted to merge the company with the Joubert group of companies in New York and New Jersey. The Joubert group includes Joubert Cie Incorporated and Irresistible Incorporated which controls Blue Waltz Incorporated, Irresistible Blue Waltz Exporters Incorporated and Ed. Pinaud Incorporated…

The new firm would keep the Nestle-Le Mur name.

It appears Ed. Pinaud, Inc. continued to operate under that name as a subsidiary of Nestle-Le Mur up through the early 1980’s and, based on this September 12, 1980 advertisement in the Belleville (N. J.) Times, they continued to operate out of the 22o East 21st Street location.

Nestle-LeMur was merged into a subsidiary of Kleer Vu Industries in December, 1983.

Currently the the Pinaud  brand is owned by American International Industries and today they sell a line of men’s toiletries under the name “Pinaud Clubman.” Their web site states:

Grooming Generations for Over 200 Years

The Pinaud Building, built by Victor Klotz in 1903, still exists to this day on the northwest corner of Fifth Avenue and Fourteenth Street.

 

The building at 220 East 21st Street is currently occupied by the School of Visual Arts.

The bottle I found is mouth blown and resembles the smaller Eau de Quinine bottle pictured on this turn of the century poster.

       

According to this 1906/1907 price list published by the Des Moines Drug Company, Eau de Quinine was sold in 4oz, 8oz, 1/2 liter and liter bottles. It’s certainly the 4 oz size.

On a final note, Eau de Quinine is still available today, albeit in plastic bottles.

 

 

R. Robinson, 402 Atlantic Av., Brooklyn, N.Y., Patent

Robert Robinson was born in Yorkshire, England in 1821 and arrived in the United States in 1841. His obituary, printed in the August 5, 1890 edition of the New York Sun stated that he:

established what was probably the first manufactory of bottled mineral water in America.

Another obituary, this one in the August 4, 1890 Brooklyn Daily Eagle, mentioned that upon arriving in this country he spent several years in Philadelphia before moving north to New York. McElroy’s City Directory of Philadelphia listed a Robert Robinson as a tavern owner (Maiden near Stone Bridge and later 233 S 6th St.) from 1841 to 1846. While I can’t confirm that this was in fact our Robert Robinson, the timing is certainly correct.

He’s first listed in New York City’s Borough of Manhattan in 1849 with an address of 7 Elm St. (now Lafayette St.) and the occupation “mineral waters.” By 1851 the business had moved to 376 Bowery where it remained through the mid-1860’s. A March 22, 1862 advertisement in the New York Times makes it clear that by then, in addition to his mineral water, Robinson was also selling bottles of both Champagne Cider and Crab-Apple Cider.

In early 1865 Robinson apparently shut down his Manhattan operation and sold its entire contents at auction on March 16th. The auction notice was printed in the February 25, 1865 edition of the New York Daily Herald.

The sale included “1500 gross (over 200,000!) of mineral water bottles, most of them with Putnam’s patent wire fasteners on.” One of the survivors of this lot was recently offered for sale on the Internet.

            

Soon after Robinson was up and running again. Now located in Brooklyn, his business was listed between  1867 and 1871 at 402-404 Atlantic Avenue and later, between 1873 and 1886, at 432-434 Atlantic Avenue.

On August 13, 1878, he filed an application to trademark what he called in his application, “the fanciful word ‘Queer'” in connection with his temperance beer.

Less than a year later, a May 29, 1879 Brooklyn Daily Eagle item advertised “Queer” with this little jingle:

According to his Brooklyn Daily Eagle obituary Robinson discontinued the business and retired  to private life sometime around 1885.

The bottle I found is small, maybe six ounces, and mouth blown with an applied blob finish. Embossing that includes the 402 Atlantic Avenue address likely dates it to the period between 1867 and 1871 when the company listed that address in the Brooklyn directories.

On a final note, Robinson’s obituaries also note that he holds a place in the early sporting history of both Brooklyn and the Nation.

Mr. Robinson may be called the father of pigeon shooting in America and was known as such throughout this country. He was a peculiar example of the English sportsman. His gun and dog were his boon companions, and he shot snipe from northern New York all the way south to New Orleans, and west, through Ohio and other states to Iowa. Snipe was his hobby, but when snipe could not be had he shot pigeons. He originated the rules of pigeon shooting in this country and organized the first shooting club in this country – the old Long Island Club – which after forty years’ successful existence, was dissolved last year.

He was also involved in horse racing, serving, for a time, as president of the Brighton Beach Racing Association.

 

Coca Mariani, Paris

 

The term Coca Mariani encompassed a series of coca based products one of which was a Bordeaux produced wine infused with coca leaves called Vin Mariani. Originally formulated in the 1860’s by M. Angelo Mariani, it would go on to become extremely popular in the United States from the 1880’s up until the early 1900’s.

Born in 1838, the early part of Mariani’s career is described in a book entitled “A Brief History of Cocaine,” by Steven B. Karch, M. D., published in 2006.

It can be said with reasonable certainty, that Mariani worked as an apprentice pharmacist in Paris at Chantrels, a pharmacy located on the Rue de Clichy. Sometime during his apprenticeship years, Mariani moved to another pharmacy in Saint-Germain. He always claimed that he was a certified pharmacist, and his death certificate supports that claim, but there is no record that he ever passed the examination required for certification.

The book goes on to say that he first produced his coca wine while still working as a pharmacy assistant. Later, his advertisements would state that it was “introduced through the medical profession since 1863.” Whether this was the date he first produced the wine; the date he first went into business for himself or just a convenient date for advertising purposes is not clear. Suffice to say, as evidenced by this November 8, 1879 advertisement in the British Medical Journal, by the late 1870’s his business was not only up and running in Paris, at 41 Boulevard Haussmann, but he was also selling his coca wine in England through the reputable pharmacy of Roberts & Co.

In the United States, the company’s operation was headquartered in NewYork City, where Mariani & Co. were first listed in 1883 with an address of 50 Exchange Place. Later they listed 19 East 16th Street (1884 to 1885) and 127 Fifth Avenue (1886 to 1888) before ultimately moving to their long time location of 52 West 15th Street in 1889.

A May 23, 1896 story in the Minneapolis Tribune described their turn of the century operation.

Mr. Mariani has the largest laboratory in France, and here he prepares, in addition to Vin Mariani, a number of other preparations well known to the scientific world. In Burgandy he has large tracts of vine-land where, by means of the blending of certain varieties of wines, he produces the grape from which the wine itself used in Vin Mariani is obtained. He is the largest buyer in the world of Peruvian cocoa, selecting the best leaves for use in his preparations and re-selling the balance to the general trade. He alone, possesses the secret of extracting all the tonic and aromatic principles in the cocoa leaf, and at the same time eliminating the alkaloid. It is the secret, together with the magnificent old Burgundy employed, that has given Vin Mariani its world wide fame.

By the late 1880’s several “coca preparations” were being advertised in the United States under the Mariani name. In addition to his wine, called Vin Mariani, this December, 1885 advertisement mentioned a liqueur, Elixir Mariani; an extract, The Mariani and crystallized lozenges, Pate Mariani.

Vin Mariani was certainly the most heavily advertised and apparently most popular of the lot. This description of its affects was typical of newspaper advertisements from the late 1800’s.

Mariani Wine is certainly the greatest tonic the world has ever known. It strengthens the nerves and gives tone to the general system. It is invaluable as a spring medicine when the system is weakened by changes of temperature and especially susceptible to attacks of malaria and la grippe.

Mariani Wine is specially indicated for throat and lung diseases, general debility, weakness from whatever causes, overwork, profound depression and exhaustion, consumption, malaria and la grippe. It is an adjuvant in convalescence and a powerful rejuvenator. For overworked men, delicate women, sickly children it works wonders.

While its questionable as to whether or not Angelo Mariani was a certified pharmacist, there’s absolutely no question that he was a top notch marketer and one of the first to employ the use of celebrity endorsements in his advertising. According to “Cocaine: An Unauthorized Biography,” by Dominic Streatfeild, published in 2001, Mariani would send free cases of wine to leading celebrities of the day, asking what they thought of it and requesting a signed photograph in return. The book goes on to say:

It is difficult to know whether the celebrities who responded were simply acknowledging the receipt of a gift, or whether they were generally impressed with the product, but the result was the same: a huge pile of letters from the most impressive men and women of the age, all apparently advocating the use of Vin Mariani.

Advertisements featuring celebrity endorsements from politicians, actors, musicians, religious leaders and even royalty began appearing in United States newspapers and magazines beginning in 1894. At minimum, the advertisements typically included a sketch of the celebrity and a quote from them. This May 14, 1898 advertisement in The (Washington D.C.) Evening Star featuring Victorien Sardou and Sarah Bernhardt was typical.

If one were to believe Mariani’s advertising, even the Empress of Russia was so impressed that she ordered a case of 50 bottles of Vin Miriani.

Anitchkoff Palace, St Petersburg, Dec. 6, 1894 – “Her Majesty Marie Feodorowna, finding great benefit from the use of your Tonic-Wine, requests that a case of 50 bottles Vin Mariani be sent immediately, addressed to Her Majesty the Empress.” By Order of the Court Physician.

Even Pope Leo XIII got involved, awarding Angelo Mariani a papal gold medal.

The advertising campaign was quite successful, as evidenced by this January 25, 1900 advertisement in the Manitoba Morning Free Press, that indicated by the turn of the century Vin Mariani’s availability had reached  world-wide proportions.

“Vin Mariani Encircles the World,” and it is a truism to say “Vin Mariani is always attended by a noonday sun.”

By the early 1900’s however, in the United States the American Medical Association was clamping down on patent medicines and their outlandish claims. In a report published in their November 24, 1906 Journal they questioned the validity of the quotes in Mariani’s testimonials.

The testimonials of these great men and women are enough to convince the most skeptical that this remarkable medicine will do everything but raise the dead – and even under favorable conditions accomplish even this. And still more it will win battles! Witness this from the governor-general of Madagascar: “We were refreshed by Vin Mariani, and before morning carried the stronghold.” Alexander Dumas and Emile Zola are credited with calling it “the elixir of life.” One very strange thing about the testimonials in the circular used in this country is that all are written by foreigners. But Americans (President McKinley – think of it! – among others) are honored by having their testimonials quoted in the circulars used on the other side of the Atlantic. Why? Is it possible that the testimonials are fakes?

In the same journal the A.M.A. had other issues with Vin Mariani as well. Tests they performed revealed that only the Bordeaux wine was imported from France and much of the remaining ingredients, including coca and sugar were added in this country. As a result the A.M.A. took this position:

According to the above report Vin Mariani as imported is simply an ordinary cheap French wine, the preparation sold in this country as Vin Mariani being compounded in this country. Yet the advertising literature, the label on the bottle, etc., state directly that it is a French preparation. Until recently – presumably until the vendors realized that the truth regarding this point would come out – the advertisements in medical journals contained an analysis made by a chemist in Paris. The shape of the bottle, the character of the printed matter accompanying the bottle, etc., are evidently intended to convey the impression that it is imported. Vin Mariani is sold under gross misrepresentations and is a fraud.

No surprise the A.M.A.,  also claimed that the product made unwarranted, exaggerated and mis-leading statements as to its therapeutic value and, suggesting that it was intended not as a medicine but as a beverage, the report recommended that it be refused recognition as a medicine.

This appears to be the beginning of the end for Mariani’s coca preparations in the United States. Around this time their advertising had become less frequent, and ultimately , whether the result of stricter food and drug laws, looming National Prohibition, Angelo Mariani’s death in 1914, or more likely a combination of all three, by 1920 Mariani & Company was no longer listed in the New York City directories.

The bottle I found is mouth blown and embossed just below the shoulder “Coca Mariani,” and “Paris,” and there’s similar embossing on its base.  It likely contained either Vin Mariani or Elixir Mariani both of which were sold in 17 ounce bottles similar to the one shown in an October 1893 advertisement published in a magazine called  “The Alienist and Neurologist.” Other advertisements show that back in the day it was likely sold in a paper wrapper.

   

Based on the November, 1906 A.M.A. Journal quoted above, regardless of the embossing and labeling, it’s not likely that the bottle and/or its entire contents actually originated in France.

Albert D. Buschman, Coney Island, N.Y.

     

Albert D. Buschman was a German immigrant, who between the late 1880’s and early 1900’s was an influential business owner in Brooklyn, New York. His profile, included in a volume called “A History of Long Island from It’s Earliest Settlement to Modern Times,” published in 1902, called him a “shrewd, far-sighted business man who:

became convinced of the future development of Coney Island, and in 1890 invested largely in real estate, which property has made him one of the wealthiest men on the island.

His business activities, which included, mineral water manufacturer and bottler, brewery owner and hotel proprietor were cut short when according to his September 13, 1927 obituary in the (Brooklyn) Times Union:

In 1903 he suffered a paralytic stroke. Although unable to walk, his mental facilities remained unclouded, and he continued to conduct his business until he retired in 1908 and to advise his sons almost up to the time of his death. Bushman’s Walk, near Steeplechase, was named in his honor.

Buschman arrived in the United States in 1868, at the age of 10 and according to the History of Long Island between 1881 and 1886 he worked in partnership with Henry Sierichs. During this period, Sierichs was sometimes listed with the occupation of “waters” and other times “bottler” at two Manhattan addresses; 159 Elizabeth Street and 172 Orchard Street. Buschman was typically not listed during this period but did appear in the 1884 directory with the occupation of “bottler” at the Elizabeth Street location. So I suspect it was during this five year period with Sierichs that he got his start manufacturing and bottling mineral water.

In 1885 or 1886 Buschman and Sierichs dissolved their partnership and Buschman established his own business in Coney Island. Bushman’s obituary stated:

About 1885 he moved to a plant at Coney island. Four years later he bought out a large bottling factory.

I can’t find a directory listing for his initial Coney Island operation but the embossing on the back of the bottle I found, “Mineral Water,” and the date “1888,”makes it clear that the business was up and running in Coney Island by that time.

In 1890, the Lain’s Brooklyn and Long Island Business Directory included a Coney Island section that listed A. D. Buschman & Co. at what was presumably their newly purchased bottling factory, located on Surf Avenue (corner of Stillman Avenue). Apparently a partnership, the listing named Albert Buschman, along with Charles Buschman (likely Albert’s brother) and Frederick Von Wiegen as proprietors.

The 1892 edition of Lain’s included an advertisement that mentioned in addition to manufacturing and bottling mineral water, they were also bottling both local and out-of state beers.

A series of 1897 advertisements in a German magazine called “Puck,” identified one of their local clients as a Manhattan brewery called Schmitt & Schwanenfluegel for whom they served as the local Coney Island bottler.

Frederick Von Wiegen passed away sometime in the late 1890’s so by 1903, with Albert incapacitated, it appears that Charles was running the operation. Around that time, Frederick’s wife, Frieda, put the Von Wiegen share of the business up for sale. The announcement printed in the March 21, 1903 edition of the New York Times under the heading “Business Opportunities” provided a concise description of the company at the time, specifically mentioning that in addition to bottling mineral water and beer, they were also “wholesale dealers in wines, liquors and cigars.”

Around that time (actually 1888), a Report of the New York State Factory Inspector indicated that A. D. Buschman & Co. had 28 employees.

As far as I can tell, Frieda Von Wiegen never sold her share of the business. Charles Buschman was listed with the company until 1908 at which time it appears that Frieda’s son, also named Frederick W. Von Wiegen assumed control of the company. This August 28, 1908 advertisement in the Brooklyn Standard Union named him and Chas. W. Fehleisen as proprietors of the company, now called F. W. Von Wiegen & Co.

The business continued under that name for several years, but by 1913/1914 the Copartnership and Corporation Directory for Brooklyn and Queens indicated that the business had dissolved.

The bottle I found is mouth blown with an applied blob finish. In my mind the embossed date of 1888 on the bottle could mean one of two things. It could be the actual manufacture date of the bottle or, more likely, it could be the year Buschman established his large factory on Surf Avenue. This would put the manufacture date between 1888 and the 1908 name change to F. W. Von Wiegen & Co.

In addition to his mineral water business, for a time Buschman served as president of a corporation that owned the Apfel Klueg Golden Rod Brewery in Fort Hamilton, Brooklyn. It’s not clear exactly when Buschman acquired the brewery but newspaper articles in 1901 indicate that he was certainly the owner by then. A story in the May 25, 1927 edition of a Brooklyn publication called “Home Talk and Item Historical and Real Estate Review” mentioned that the brewery was demolished in 1907, which was about the time of Buschman’s retirement.

Although the story generally addresses a time period prior to Buschman’s involvement with the brewery, it provides an interesting description of the brewery and its place in history so I’ve included it here.

FIRST MOVIES HERE

A favorite gathering place for South Brooklyn people 30 years ago, was the Golden Horn Brewery on Third Avenue, between Ninety-fifth and Ninety-sixth Sts., owned and conducted by Adolph Texter. It was there that many banquets and other social events were held and where nightly one could enjoy excellent band concerts given by musicians from both the Hamburg-American and North German Lloyd steamers in port and prominent vaudeville and concert artists.

It was at the Golden Horn Brewery that first experiments with a motion picture machine were made. An inventor, named Thomas Kelly, who has many patents on motion picture machines and who has an office on Fourteenth Street, New York, set up his new discovery at that place in the summer of 1897. The event was widely advertised and the curious filled the large ballroom of the brewery. A large screen was spread across the stage and the experiment began. Of course, figures moved, but so rapidly and blurred that it was impossible to distinguish any object. And your eyes! Well, after looking for a few minutes, one was unable to see correctly for some time. However, Mr. Thomas Kelly kept improving on his invention, and in a few weeks after the first experiment, again had a motion picture machine that was considered marvelous in those days, for the objects were distinguishable and didn’t affect the eyes. The brewery was demolished in 1907.

 

 

Buffalo Lithia Water

 

The story of Buffalo Lithia Water is centered around a mineral water spring  located in Mecklenberg County, Virginia.

The very beginning of the story, as remembered years later by a long time local area resident, was included in a feature on the spring and the resort that grew up around it published in the August 23, 1874 edition of the Norfolk Virginian.

We have just learned from an old man living near here, who is about seventy-five years old, all about this now famous place, as it was when he was a boy. The valley in which the spring is was a black marsh, having a strong odor of gunpowder, and looked very much like it, and the Spring was known as “Gunpowder Spring.” It was a favorite resort on Sundays for all the Sabbath-breakers of the neighborhood, who congregated here to fight, play cards, etc. A few years after, the farmers who lived some little distance off, appreciating the valuable water, and not living near enough to visit it as often as they wished, commenced to build them cottages around here, and spend most of the summer here. A gentleman by the name of Speed built the first Hotel, and the place was known as “SPEED’S HEALING SPRING.”

Joseph F. Speed announced the establishment of his hotel, formally referred to as “Buffalo Springs” (sometimes “Buffaloe” in the early years),  in an advertisement dated May 24, 1816. The ad which ran in the June 7, and June 14, 1816 editions of the (Raleigh) North Carolina Star, referred to the hotel as “a house of entertainment,” but primarily focused on the supposed healing properties of the spring’s water.

Buffaloe Mineral Springs

The subscriber takes this method of informing the public that he has established A House of Entertainment at the above named springs, for the accommodation of those who may think proper to visit them, either for the benefit of their health, or for pleasure. To those who intend visiting the springs for the benefit of their health, he can say with confidence, that they will find the water efficacious in the cure of intermittent and remittent bilious fevers, acute rheumatism, taints from syphyliptic complaints, glandular obstructions, and is of peculiar efficacy in diseases of the skin and sore eyes. It has been of great service to several who appeared to have hectic, by speedily restoring their strength. Hypocondrical and hysterical cases are much benefitted. In fine’, from the sensible effects of this water upon the intestines, pores and kidneys, it must be useful in very many of those disorders which render life tedious, and man comfortless to his friends.

The announcement certainly appears introductory in nature so it’s likely that the summer of 1816, if not the hotel’s inaugural season, was certainly close to it..

The hotel remained in the Speed family up until the late 1830’s. During this period, annual items announcing the seasonal opening appeared in nearby Virginia and North Carolina newspapers. Based on these announcements, over the years the hotel was leased and run by various individuals. Some were members of Speed’s family but it was predominantly run by a man named David Shelton who, along with Clem R. Kenon, ultimately bought the property sometime in 1840 or 1841. They actually purchased it from John S. Field and Alexander S. Jones who had purchased it from Speed two years earlier in 1839.

An announcement published in the May 11, 1841 edition of the Raleigh (North Carolina) Register identified Shelton and Kenon as the new owners. It’s clear from this announcement that the resort had grown since 1816.

The subscribers (Shelton and Kenon) having become the owners of the property are tending their means of accommodation, and expect, by the opening of the season, to be able to afford comfortable entertainment to two hundred and fifty or three hundred visitors. Their cabins are well furnished, airy and comfortable – their stables good, with a pump of excellent water in the yard. Their bar will be furnished with the best wines and liquors that can be procured, and their table with the best supplies the country will afford. A band of good music will be always in attendance; in fact they intend to spare neither trouble or expense in their efforts to render this establishment a pleasant and fashionable resort for both the healthy and the sick.

Apparently the business continued to grow and prosper under Shelton who, by 1845, listed himself as the sole proprietor. He would remain the resort’s primary owner throughout the 1840’s and 1850’s. During this period his annual advertisements continued to stress the health benefits of the location. This was Shelton’s 1854 sales pitch, printed in the June 24 edition of the Hillsborough (North Carolina) Register.

The prevalence of disease in the middle and southern portions of the United States, during the past winter and spring, admonish the people to look out for some safe summer retreat, where the ills inflicted by winter maladies may be removed, and, at the same time, secure an exemption from the harassing complaints of the hot season of the year. As a locality propitious to this end, I beg leave respectfully to call the attention of the public to my watering place, the Buffalo Mineral Spring, situated in the upper end of Mecklenburg County, Va., several miles west of the town of Clarksville.

The tonic powers of this water, so potent in imparting tone and vigor to the digestive organs, and its diuretic qualities so efficient in purifying and cleansing the blood, renders it a pleasant and useful remedy in a wide range of disease. Its curative powers are more conspicuously manifested in the various forms of dropsy, protracted intermittent fevers, chronic diseases of the skin, functional derangements of the liver, stomach spleen, bowels, and kidneys, and last, though not least, female complaints, and almost every chronic disease of the pelvic organs in both sexes…

Having been the purveyor to the establishment for many years, I can bear testimony to the astonishing effects of the water on the appetite, and the perfect impunity with which quantities of food may be taken, which under other circumstances, would be wholly inadmissible. To meet this exigency, therefore, I can only promise to do my best in the cuisine department, and will pledge myself to the summer voyager to make no charge against him if his appetite or digestion fail him…

DAVID SHELTON, Proprietor

Shelton’s rate schedule permitted a stay by the day, week or month and he was even willing to care for your horse at seventy-five cents a day.

In addition to the resort’s health benefits, it appears you could have a little fun there as well. During Shelton’s tenure the resort added a billiard room, ten pin bowling alleys and in 1857:

For the gratification and amusement of visitors fond of riding out, I’m am preparing and will have completed in due time, a round trotting track upon a fine surface, where they may ride with comfort and safety.

If that wasn’t enough, they organized and hosted social functions, one of which was an annual knight’s jousting tournament held in full costume. The two day affair included the tournament and a “fancy grand ball,” that featured the coronation of a tournament queen by the successful knight, followed the next day by a balloon ascension and a party. Below, is the tournament’s 1855 announcement published in the September 5, edition of the Weekly Raleigh Register.

Based on their annual seasonal announcements, Shelton owned and ran the resort up through at least 1859, but by the early 1860’s he appears to have been slowing down. The June 11, 1862 announcement in the the (Raleigh North Carolina) Weekly Standard no longer named Shelton as the proprietor but instead indicated that the property had been leased to James Williamson who was running the operation that year.

The announcement went on to make this point:

The location is remote from the theatre of war, and yet accessible to travel.

So, surprisingly, it appears that the resort stayed open for at least a period of time during the Civil War.

Shelton ultimately sold the property to T. Paxson in December 1863 and passed away the following June.  Paxson owned and operated the resort up through 1873 at which point he sold a majority interest to Thomas Goode, a former officer in the Confederate army. The sale was announced in the July, 1873 editions of several North Carolina newspapers.

An August 23, 1874 story in the Norfolk Virginian described the accommodations at around the time Goode acquired the property.

The Hotel is a one-story building, containing the ball room, parlor and office – a very admirable arrangement, as no one is so disturbed by the music and dancing. The dining room takes up another spacious building just in rear of the hotel. Scattered all over the grounds and around the edges of the beautiful green, are about 50 cottages, containing some 100 rooms.

It was under Goode that the Buffalo Spring water went from local to global.

Shortly after  Goode obtained the majority interest in the resort area another spring was discovered on the site. Their seasonal announcement opening the resort in 1874 led with the discovery.

BUFFALO SPRINGS MECKLENBURG COUNTY, VA. – RECENT DISCOVERY OF AN ADDITIONAL SPRING, decidedly impregnated with the celebrated “Salts of Lithia.” These springs open for the reception of visitors on the FIRST OF JUNE, 1874.

A June 11, 1874 advertisement in the (Wilmington, North Carolina) Daily Journal described the new discovery like this:

The New Buffalo Spring

Mecklenburg County Va.

The Spring, discovered since the last Summer, is shown by analysis, made by Professor Toury of Baltimore, to contain a HEAVIER PERCENTAGE of the Bicarbonate of Lithia than any other AMERICAN MINERAL WATER. In fact it is the

Only Spring in America

containing Lithia in any substantial quantity. It is the ingredient which has given such celebrity to the “Aix-la-Chapelle,” the Vichy and the Carlsbad waters of the continent of Europe.

By that Fall they were exporting the water beyond the limits of the resort.  This September 26, 1874 advertisement published in the Richmond (Va.) Dispatch, makes it clear that by then they were bottling and shipping water from both Spring No.’s 1 and 2 under the “Buffalo Lithia Water” name using the half-gallon size; a unique size they would use throughout their history.

In the Spring of the following year local drug stores in both Raleigh, North Carolina and Richmond, Virginia began to include it in their local advertisements. These ads for Meade & Baker, Druggists and Simpson’s Drug Store that appeared in the May 11, 1875 Richmond Dispatch and the April 3, 1875 (Raleigh) Trickett-Weekly Topic respectively, both made mention of Buffalo Lithia Water.

In 1878, Buffalo Lithia Water’s long time trademark of a seated woman wearing a long flowing robe and  holding a pitcher, presumably containing their mineral water, began to appear in advertisements. The earliest ad I could find that included her attendance was published in the June 22, 1878 edition of a publication called the Medical Record.

Around the same time the word “Lithia” began to appear in advertisements for the resort as well, referring to it as”Buffalo Lithia Springs.”

In 1886 Goode gave up management of the Springs, leasing it to a company named the “Virginia Buffalo Lithia Springs Company.” This announcement marking the change appeared in the June 15, 1886 edition of the (Raleigh, North Carolina) Weekly Observer. Their new rates also appeared in several local newspapers.

According to an open letter to the public that was written by Goode and printed in the September 2, 1886 edition of the Richmond Dispatch this new arrangement lasted less than one season.

To the Public:

I have this moment had my attention called to a card in the Dispatch of the 31st ultimo of the “Virginia Buffalo Lithia Springs Company,” referring to a pending difficulty between the company and myself. I do not propose here to make any detailed statement as to the means of that difficulty. Suffice to say that I hold in my possession a letter signed by Charles H. Royce, president of that company, under date of August 20th, in which he virtually acknowledges the insolvency of his company, and states in express terms that he will not be able to pay the rents upon the Buffalo Springs property due September 1st, and also that he is unable to pay an extension of one half the June rents, a note for which matures on the 15th of September, unless I will take from him in payment stocks instead of money, which stocks I deem utterly useless. These acknowledgements of the president of the company, coupled with the fact that he had ordered the accumulation of 10,000 cases of the Buffalo Lihia Water in the offices of the company in New York, induced me to ask the interposition of a court of equity and the appointment of a receiver to take charge of the property.

Thomas F. Goode

This follow-up item in the June 23, 1887 Henderson (North Carolina) Gold Leaf, made it clear that by the following season Buffalo Springs was back in Goode’s hands, although it took a Supreme Court decision to get it done.

By the decision of the United States Supreme Court Col. Thos. F. Goode is again in possession of the noted Buffalo Lithia Springs near Clarksville, Va., and with many improvements in building and furnishing, is prepared to receive a large number of health or pleasure seeking guest. We know from experience, there is no more pleasant place to spend a couple of weeks in August, or earlier.

Legal issues not withstanding, distribution of their litha water increased throughout the decade of the 1880’s, primarily fueled by advertisements jam packed with testamonials from both doctors and supposedly cured patients. By 1882 it was being advertised in New York area newspapers and by the end of the decade advertisements had reached as far west as California.

Around 1890, distribution was aided further by the addition of a railroad depot at the resort itself. Earlier shipments from the Springs required a 13 mile horse and carriage trip to the Scottsville depot on the Richmond Danville Railroad line. The 13 mile journey included a crossing of the Dan River, described in an August 28, 1874 Norfolk Virginian story as being 50 yards wide and 2 to 4 feet deep. The crossing was facilitated by a “flat manned by one oarsman.” Groundings were not unheard of.

Nonetheless, while demand and distribution increased, their bottling operations up through the turn of the century remained relatively primitive. An August 14, 1889 story in the Richmond Dispatch described it like this.

A visit to the packing-house shows two stout negro men hard at work from morning until night, and often until a late hour of the night, filling the bottles and packing them for shipment to all parts of the country. Great care is taken to have the bottles clean and sweet and to pack them so that no loss is had by breakage while en route to their destination.

Ultimately a new modern bottling plant was opened, but not until sometime in 1910. A news story or advertisement, I’m not sure which, that marked it’s opening appeared in late August, 1910 newspapers across the country.

The story/advertisement went on to say, in part:

We beg to announce the completion of a New and UP-TO-DATE plant for handling and bottling the well-known BUFFALO LITHIA SPRINGS WATER in its natural purity and without loss of its health giving properties…

The spring from which these waters flow is chiseled out of solid rock, lined with white tiling, covered with plate glass and the whole surrounded by triple-reinforced cement walls laid in the natural rock. The water is taken from the spring by means of an air tight pump, silver lined and fitted with silver valves, and forced through lines of block tin pipe into glass-lined steel tanks. From these tanks the water is drawn through silver faucets into NEW bottles which have been chemically treated, washed and rinsed with the purest water under high pressure, and sterilized – all in the most thorough manner and with the latest devices and equipment. Even the air which enters the white-walled bottling room is taken from high above the building, filtered and driven out by powerful electric fans, rendering contamination by dust or otherwise, an impossibility.

The Buffalo Lithia Springs Water retains its medicinal properties to a remarkable degree when bottled and for thirty-eight years past this water has been widely prescribed by the medical profession and no remedial agent has received a larger share of medical endorsation of a high order. Most of this endorsation was given to the use of the bottled water, comparatively few of these eminent physicians having used the waters at the Springs.

Goode passed away in 1905 and by 1908 springtime advertisements confirm that the hotel and bottling business were both being conducted under the name “Buffalo Lithia Springs Water Company.” At the same time, the company began calling the water “Buffalo Lithia Springs Water.”

The formation of the company was likely in response to Goode’s death, however, the American Medical Association, in their June 14, 1914 Journal, suggested that the name change from “Buffalo Lithia Water,” to “Buffalo Lithia Springs Water,” was clearly in reaction to the Food and Drug Act of 1906.

One of the best known, because most widely advertised, of the so-valled lithia waters is Buffalo Lithia Water – or what used to be called Buffalo Lithia Water. After the Federal Food and Drug Act came into effect, by which falsification on the label was penalized, the name of Buffalo Lithia Water was changed to Buffalo Lithia Springs Water. The reason for this change was that when Buffalo Lithia Water was subjected to examination by the government chemists it was found to contain so little lithium that the amount present was unweighable – it could be demonstrated only by the spectroscope. It was evidently, therefore, not a litha water in that it did not contain – at least in quantities that could be consumed – an amount of lithium that would give the therapeutic effects of lithium: Possibly the company imagined that by changing the name from “Buffalo Lithia Water” to “Buffalo Lithia Springs Water” it had cleverly evaded the federal law. Their argument was to this effect: The springs from which the water is taken are known as Buffalo Lithia Springs; therefore, it is not a misstatement of facts to call this Buffalo Lithia Springs Water.

In December of 1910, the federal government formally declared the water misbranded and on February 16, 1914, after years of court proceedings the water was ruled mis-branded by the Supreme Court of the District of Columbia. The ruling was later upheld by the Court of Appeals in December of 1915.

Ultimately this resulted in another name change, this time to the Buffalo Mineral Springs Water Company. Short-lived, the company defaulted and the property was sold at public auction in April of 1920. The (Newport News) Daily Press reported on the sale in their April 10, 1920 edition.

BUFFALO MINERAL SPRINGS SOLD TO RICHMOND CORP.

The Buffalo Mineral Springs Company’s properties in Mecklenburg County, including the hotel, cottages, water bottling plant, and all mineral rights were yesterday sold at public auction to the Prudential Realty Corporation of Richmond, at a figure said to be in excess of $200,000. H. L. Denoon of Richmond, is president of the corporation. Hotel and cottages it is understood, will be operated by the new owners this summer.

Under the new management the resort was now called the Buffalo Lithia Springs Hotel, but their sales pitch stayed pretty much the same stressing the health value of the waters as well as the resort amenities which, by then, included tennis as well as boating and bathing on a ten acre lake. In the late 1920’s they would add a nine hole golf course.

In addition to operating the resort, the company also continued to bottle and distribute the spring water. Updating the trademark, they now called it “Buffalo Mineral Springs Water.”

Some advertisements now referred to it as a delightful table water and words like therapeutic and helpful had replaced the word cure. One 1922 advertisement put it like this:

For a half-century it has been recognized by physicians the world over for its known therapeutic qualities. It is helpful in the treatment of Bladder and Kidney troubles, Nausea, etc. It is an active antacid Diuretic.

Buffalo Mineral Springs Water is one of nature’s gifts to man – a boon to Scientists and a water of known purity for table use.

The resort would assume new ownership again in May, 1930 when it was acquired by a newly formed corporation called the Virginia Buffalo Springs Corporation. The July 25, 1930 edition of The (Danville Va.) Bee reported planned improvements were in the works.

To Improve Springs

The Virginia Buffalo Springs Corporation, a recently organized company, has taken over from a Richmond bank the property known as Buffalo Lithia Springs in Mecklenburg County and plans to develop this well-known resort into a health sanatorium equal to any in the middle Atlantic states. Roger B. Williams, of New York, heads the newly formed corporation.

The optimistic plans for development never materialized and in 1939 the resort and bottling operation were acquired by a local group that included C. Brooke Temple, along with two partners, George and Ellis Penn. According to a July 31, 1939 story in The Bee:

Announcement was made Saturday of the purchase of the famous Buffalo Springs by C. Brooke Temple of Danville for $25,000. Mr. Temple has made no definite plans concerning the operation of the property as a resort or of the bottling and sale of the famous Buffalo Springs water.

While the $25,000 purchase price as compared with the $200,000 purchase price in 1920 tells you all you need to know about the health of the business, it appears that the bottling operation was still viable, at least to some extent. The July 31, 1939 story went on to say:

Despite the fact that Buffalo Springs water has not been consistently or extensively advertised for over a decade large amounts of it have been bottled and shipped to various points throughout the nation. It can be bought in Danville drug stores today.

Temple apparently kept the resort going, at least for a while. The resort’s opening night dance in 1940 was advertised in the June 10 edition of The Bee.

The following year a story in the August 25, 1941 edition of the Bee announcing an antique auction in the ballroom of the Buffalo Springs Hotel mentioned that the hotel was “open to accommodate guests for meals and lodging.” Whether it operated after 1941 is unclear.”

Temple also continued with what appears to be a scaled down version of the  bottling business. According to an October 17, 1939 item in The Bee:

The Buffalo Mineral Springs Company has been granted a charter to bottle and sell mineral water, by the State Corporation Commission at Richmond. The sum of $30,000 is set at maximum capital for this springs recently purchased by C Brooke Temple of Danville.

At around the same time, this October 9, 1939 advertisement in The Bee promised to soon deliver his water locally in five gallon containers.

He delivered on that promise and between 1940 and 1945 it was advertised locally in the larger bottle. The advertisement below was printed in the June 30, 1943 edition of The Bee.

Now simply called Buffalo Mineral Water, as late as 1943 it was still running afoul of the federal food and drug laws. On December 11, 1943 a judgement of condemnation was ordered against one of their shipments. According to the notice of judgement:

On October 21, 1943 the United States attorney for the Eastern District of North Carolina filed a libel against 37 5-gallon bottles of Buffalo Mineral Water at Wake Forest, N. C., alleging that the article had been shipped on or about June 21, 1943, by the Buffalo Mineral Springs Co., Inc., from Buffalo Springs, Va.; and charging that it was misbranded.

Examination disclosed that the article was a lightly mineralized water.

The article was alleged to be misbranded because of false and misleading statements appearing in the leaflet entitled “Perhaps…You Might Wish to Know,” which represented and suggested that the article would improve or restore health; and that it was an unexcelled diuretic and would be of great benefit  in the treatment of kidney disorders, diabetes, renal calculi (stone in the bladder), inflammation of the bladder, Bright’s disease, constipation, stomach disorders, indigestion, gastro-intestinal disorders, jaundice, liver disorders, alcoholism, rheumatism, neuritis, arthritis, disorders of the nervous system, influenza, colds, and children’s diseases.

Finally, a May 27, 1944, a story in The Bee announced that Temple had bought out his two partners and had become the sole owner. The story went on to say that by then he had sold most of the resort buildings.

Regarding the bottling portion of the business it said:

Temple proposes, after the war to develop a bottling works there. Spring No. 5 has been found to be suitable for carbonization and this, he says is to be further developed.

In September, 1945, Temple went so far as to advertise for an operating manager for his bottling plant.

As far as I can tell, the Spring No. 5 plans never materialized beyond that point.

The bottle I found is a mouth blown example of their characteristic half-gallon size and includes their embossed “robed sitting lady” trademark. It was likely made around the turn of the century.

Also embossed with the words “Buffalo Lithia Water,” you would think it contained the water from Spring No.2, however, this may not be the case. According to an article in the November 8, 1900 edition of The (Richmond, Va. Times) they were still bottling the water from both Springs No. 1 and 2 at that time.

The article which was focused on the unlawful refilling of their bottles, described how to make the distinction:

Some unscrupulous dealers seeing the opportunity of enriching themselves at the expense of the public, and to the detriment of their customer’s health, have resorted to refilling Buffalo Lithia Water bottles with ordinary water…

It should be borne in mind that Buffalo Lithia Water is sold in half-gallon bottles and no other way, and that water sold from the siphon, or in goblets, or in any other way whatsoever, is not the genuine. Every cork of the genuine Buffalo Lithia Water is branded either Spring No.1 or Spring No. 2 and upon each cork is the seal which bears the trade mark and again the number 1 or 2, according to the Spring from which that bottle has been filled.

In addition to the cork the respective Spring No. was also indicated on the label. A fully labeled bottle that recently appeared for sale on the Internet clearly indicates Spring No. 2 on the label.

How long they continued bottling water from both springs is not clear.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prof Callan’s World Renowned Brazillian Gum

Prof Callan’s Brazilian Gum was, as far as I can tell, a rubber cement sold around the turn of the century. Advertising stamped on the cover of one of their wooden shipping crates touted it for:

Repairing Rubber Boots And Shoes And For Putting Rubber Soles On Leather Boots & Shoes.

Their trade mark, also stamped on the crate, consisted of what appears to be a bespectacled old man carrying a boot and top hat.

A labeled bottle, recently offered for sale on the internet, also included the  bespectacled old man.

The back label of the bottle included these directions for use:

Have the boot or shoe thoroughly clean; scrape with a knife or file to make it rough around the part where the patch is to be put and apply the gum; put the gum on the patch also; let them each dry separately from 10 to 20 minutes after which put the patch on the hole, press firmly together and then hammer lightly. Two coats may be necessary. This will make old boots and shoes as good as new.

I haven’t been able to identify a company associated with the product or a an exact time frame, but I’ve seen it mentioned in publications as early as 1892 and as late as 1908, so that is certainly a safe time frame.

In the 1878 New York City Directory, there was a Thomas A. Callan listed at 180 South Street with the occupation “gum,” and he was listed with the occupation “rubber” dating back to 1875. As a result, it’s possible that Prof Callan’s Brazilian Gum dates back to that time and place but I haven’t been able to make a definite connection.

The bottle I found is mouth blown with a roughly one inch square cross section and an elongated neck. It fits with a turn of the century manufacture date.

Clicquot Club

 

The Clicquot Club story can also be billed as the story of ginger ale in America.

According to an article in the January, 1928 edition of a publication called the “American Exporter,” when the Clicquot Club business was founded the American market for ginger ale could be divided into two groups. One was the Belfast people, whose products were high grade and high priced, and sold almost exclusively to hotels, clubs, bar-rooms and cafes. The other group consisted of the local “pop-bottlers” who operated in practically every town that the annual circus visited or county fairs were held. Both groups depended on selling to people who were traveling or otherwise on parade.

Cliquot Club, while not neglecting the traveling public, focused their marketing and sales efforts on home consumption and ultimately revolutionized the industry.

According to a recent article in the September 15, 2011 edition of the Boston Globe, the Ciccquot Club story started with a sparkling cider that was produced locally by Charles LaCroix of the LaCroix Fruit Farm. The farm was likely located somewhere on or neighboring the estate of Lansing Millis for whom the town of Millis, Massachusetts was ultimately named.

Sometime in the early 1880’s LaCroix partnered with Lansing Millis’s son, Henry Millis, and began bottling the cider under the name “Aqua Rex Bottling Works.”

The Boston Globe story goes on to say:

In the 1880’s, Henry Millis suggested he call it “Cliquot” after a famous French champagne, Veuve Clicquot.

Local advertisements for Millis’s Oak Grove Farm suggest that the name change to Clicquot may have taken place sometime in 1887. A March 27, 1887 advertisement in the Boston Globe mentioned an item they called “Refined Cider.” By the end of the year, their December 24, 1887 Christmas advertisement called it Clicquot Club Cider.

    

When Henry Millis incorporated several local businesses and utility systems under the “Millis Company” in June, 1891, the Aqua Rex Bottling Works was one of them.  The description of the bottling works included in the Millis Company stock offering, published in the July 11, 1891 edition of the Boston Globe, made it clear that by then the focus of the business had shifted from cider to ginger ale.

The Aqua- Rex Bottling Works who manufactures the well known “Cliquot Club Ginger Ale.” Actual profits for the first 19 days in June were $1,000.

Newspaper advertisements for their ginger ale began appearing at around that time. The first one I could find was printed in the August 1, 1891 edition of the Boston Globe.

In fact, a bottle from this era, embossed “Aqua Rex Bottling Works Millis, Mass” that likely held their ginger ale recently appeared on an internet sale site.

A year later, a June 28, 1892 advertisement in the Hartford (Connecticut) Courant provided evidence that they had quickly added birch beer, orange soda and sarsaparilla to their menu. It also suggested that by then they had started to use a pint bottle, something they would continue to use throughout their history.

By 1894, the Millis Company, as well as Henry Millis’s other financial interests, were in such serious financial trouble that it ultimately resulted in the failure of his businesses and the personal loss of over half a million dollars.

After failure of the Millis Company management and ownership of the bottling business during the 1890’s is unclear. Suffice to say,  Clicquot Club continued to be advertised throughout the decade and the Aqua Rex Bottling Company was still listed in the New England Business Directory and Gazetteer in 1896.  Up to that point the state of the business was best described in a feature published in the April 21, 1921 edition of an advertising publication called “Printers Ink.” It was written by Edward S Price who in 1921 was the manager of Clicquot Club’s advertising.

During its first fifteen years this was an honest, straightforward, but slow growing, small, countryside bottling business; handicapped at times by lack of capital and other annoying troubles due to lack of experience in buying, selling, manufacturing and exploiting.

The now famous Clicquot Club blend was there, however, and by sheer force of its goodness, the business grew. Then came a man who believed in advertising, a man who had the courage of his convictions.

That man was H. Earle Kimball whose father, Horace A. Kimball of Rhode Island, acquired the controlling interest in the business in 1901. He put his son in charge who would then manage the business until his death in 1952.

Shortly after the Kimball’s took control, their 1901 patent applications referred to the business as the Clicquot Club Bottling and Extract Company but soon after the name was shortened to the Clicquot Club Company.

Under Kimball’s management, the Millis plant grew quickly. A March 1906 feature in the “National Magazine” described the early 1900’s plant as three buildings with a floor space of 45,000 square feet.

In 1915, Clicquot Club advertisements in the January and February editions of the American Bottler mentioned that by then the plant had grown to 100,000 square feet and had a capacity of 60,000 bottles per day. The advertisements included this photograph of the plant presumably taken at around that time.

Documenting the company’s continued growth, the October, 1923 edition of the RE-LY-ON Bottler provided this description of an even larger plant.

The plant itself, located about 20 miles from Boston, on the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, is situated on a 17 acre tract of land and is housed in fire-proof brick buildings, consisting of the main bottling plant, 200 by 175 feet; four warehouses, from 100 by 180 to 100 by 280 feet; one three story building, 150 by 50 feet; a modern power house, 50 by 70 feet, containing two boilers, two generators and two engines; and the two story office building, containing 5,400 feet of space and given over to the administrative, advertising and clerical forces. Three railroad sidings, with a total trackage of 3,070 feet, make for speedy loading and unloading.

The growth of the business into a national concern under Kimball was in no small way the result of their advertising campaigns. Situated between Providence and Boston they were quite successful in those markets but had fewer dealers elsewhere. Nonetheless in 1907 they began advertising on a national scale. According to the 1921 Printer’s Ink story:

We did our first national advertising in 1907, using a large list of magazines and accepted “waste circulation” – waste circulation on account of our lack of distribution. We bought space in national magazines and considered it a profitable investment for the good it did us where we did have dealer distribution.

Many advertising theorists have contended that one should have distribution first, but it was not so with us. Consumer demand was created in many places where we had no distribution, that is true; but a big consumer demand was created where we did have distribution. Perfectly logically, demand created distribution, and now one may, in normal times, purchase Clicquot Club ginger ale in almost any community from Maine to California.

Our selling scheme was about like this: A salesman was to go to the wholesale grocer and say in effect, “Here is our ginger ale which is good enough and made by a concern big enough to advertise in all the leading national publications.”

This full page advertisement printed in the April, 1908 edition of McLure’s Magazine was surely part of their initial 1907 national advertising campaign.

In May, 1913 their long time “Eskimo Boy” trademark began to appear in newspaper advertisements. One of the first ones I could find was in the  May 23, 1913 edition of the Fitchburg (Mass.) Sentinel. The “Eskimo Boy” would go on to become the nationally recognized symbol of the company.

Their advertising wasn’t just limited to print and 10 years later, the Cliquot Club “Eskimo Boy” found himself on the world’s largest electric advertising sign smack dab in the middle of Times Square, New York. The sign was described in this June 18, 1924 story in the (Binghamton N.Y.) Press and Sun Bulletin, written around the time that the sign was illuminated for the first time.

BROADWAY’S GREATEST SIGN NOW ADVERTISES CLICQUOT CLUB PRODUCT

The largest electric sign in the white light history of Broadway was turned on last week at Times Square. The sign, advertising Clicquot Club ginger ale stretches a full city block and is over 50 feet high. Almost 20 miles of copper wire, tons of wrought iron, sheet metal and solder, hundreds of gallons of paint and nearly 20,000 electric bulbs contribute their parts to this colossal illiumination. Very striking design and ingenious action as well as gigantic size distinguish the Clicquot Club sign from all other Broadway displays. The Cliquot Club Eskimo Kid, whose face is so familiar in magazines and newspapers, sits on a dog sled behind a huge bottle of his ginger ale. His scarf flying in the Arctic breeze, he whizzes through the snow, drawn by three joyous little Eskimos. And as he rides, his great electric whip strikes the name of Clicquot Club Ginger Ale, one word at each illuminating crack.

The Clicquot Club company has erected this sign largely as a symbol of its entry into its 40th year of service to the American public.

This photograph of the sign is courtesy of the New York State Historical Society.

Cliquot Club was also a trailblazer in radio advertising. As early as 1925 it sponsored a radio program featuring a banjo orchestra called The Clicquot Club Eskimos. This photograph of the band appeared in the March 21, 1926 edition of the Pittsburgh Post and also appeared in several other newspapers that month as far west as Wyoming.

The caption under the photograph reads:

Picture in costume of the Clicquot Club Eskimos led by Harry Reser (seated in front). This banjo ensemble is making a great name for itself over the air every Thursday night. It is sponsored by the Clicquot Club Ginger Ale Company. The Eskimos are heard over 15 stations.

This description of the Eskimos appeared in the August 11, 1926 edition of the (Lancaster Pa.) Intelligencer Journal. They, and along with them the Clicquot Club name, entered homes across the country every week.

These remarkable producers of popular music under the leadership of Harry Reser primarily consist of solo banjo, plectrum banjo for rhythm,, two mandolin banjos, saxaphone, trombone, trumpet, tuba, violin, piano, drums.

When occasion requires, banjos are shifted to wood lutes, mandolins, guitars, ukuleles, an extra viola, cello and there are even further combinations sometimes worked out with this able group of four stringed instrument men.

An interesting feature has been added to the program of the Clicquot Club Eskimos of snappy popular songs handled mostly as chorus accompaniment  to the orchestra or with banjo and guitar accompaniment.

The radio program ran until the Mid-1930’s and the orchestra continued to make live appearances up through the late 1930’s. Here they are, sans costume, circa 1936.

By the late 1920’s, their advertising had literally woven Clicquot Club ginger ale into the fabric of the nation. Consider a story in the October 15, 1929 edition  of the (Caruthersville Mo.) Democrat-Argus about the Graf Zeppelin completing what they called “its epochal globe-girding flight.” The story marveled at the fact that “Such extraordinary events and apparently incredible achievements have been piling up (and) the world has come to take these marvels as accustomed events.” With the help of Cliquot Club the story went on to emphasize their point.

Curiously enough the man on the street was no more casual about the event than the Graf Zeppelin passengers. What do you think was on their minds as they approached the last leg of their trip around the world? Nothing more important than the replenishment of the steward’s supply of ginger ale. H. Earle Kimball, president of the Clicquot Club Company, tells me that his West Coast representative had to go to no end of trouble about it.

Dr. Eckener had instructed his steward, Hendrick Kubik, to lighten the load to facilitate the ship’s crossing of the Rocky Mountains, and as ginger ale comes in heavy glass bottles, Herr Kubik appealed to the Clicquot people and they proposed supplying it in gallon aluminum containers, used for quite another purpose, but which had a spigot attachment. Herr Kubik objected that as part was drawn off the balance would become flat and useless. But the Sec brand was so dry that it could be de-cantered without loss of carbonation. This was proved by a hurried experiment and the Zeppelin passengers enjoyed their ginger ale, avoided airsickness, and Herr Kubik’s reputation as the best steward on the round-the-world air service was maintained.

It was sometime in the mid-1920’s that they began marketing their ginger ale in multiple brands, initially adding a second brand of ginger ale called “Pale Dry” to their menu.

One advertisement described the distinction between the two different brands, both of which they called thirst-erasers:

Wherever you go this summer from Bar Harbor Maine to Coronado Beach in California, you will find these two thirst-erasers. Choose Cliquot Club Ginger Ale, Regular, to get that rare and spicy flavor that is real ginger ale. Uncap Cliquot Club Pale Dry for a drink that is as delicate and subtle as Regular Cliquot is vigorous and full flavored. Both are full of life. Both have that famous Cliquot Club taste – the taste that, forty years ago, taught America what real ginger ale is like.

By the late 1920’s it appears that their original ginger ale named “Regular” in the above advertisement had acquired the more consumer friendly name of “Golden.” They had also added a third brand by then called “Sec,” describing it as:

The supremely dry ginger ale, a favorite in clubs, hotels, and wherever people of discriminating taste gather. Sec is the rarest ginger ale flavor in America!

During the 1930’s the company updated their packaging, adding a quart bottle to their long time pint and a canned option as well.

The quart was added in 1934 and was extensively advertised throughout that year starting in May/June.

Cans became available in 1938. This July 1938 advertisement exhibits a cone-shaped type can and it certainly appears introductory in nature.

The advertisement goes on to say that it was the first ginger ale offered in a can.

This fine old ginger ale is the first to come to you in cans. You’ll like the new way of buying Cliquot Club – because it’s so handy, and because it’s the same delicious ginger ale as Cliquot Club in bottles.

In the 1940’s and 1950’s the company was no longer manufacturing and bottling their beverages exclusively at their Millis, Massachusetts plant. By then they were establishing regional bottling plants in an effort to bottle and distribute their products closer to their end user. In the late 1940’s the New York City franchise was called the Clicquot Club Bottling Company of Manhattan, although it was actually located across the East River in Long Island City Queens, at 5-16 47th Avenue. Clicquot Club bottlers in upstate New York were located in Cairo and Binghamton.

According to a June 6, 1953 story in the Kingston (N.Y.) Freeman, by this time their advertising strategy was no longer national in scope but focused primarily on local newspaper advertisements in an effort to best service these regional bottlers.

Clicquot Club Selects Newspaper Advertising

Newspapers have been selected as the principal medium for the advertising and promotion of Clicquot Club ginger ale and other sparkling soft drinks for 1953, it was announced by Alton T. Barnard, vice president in charge of sales for the Clicquot Club Bottling Co., Millis, Mass…

Barnard, who has recently completed a coast-to-coast tour of Clicquot Club bottling plants, pointed out that regional bottlers were highly enthusiastic about this years sale possibilities and the advertising campaign which he outlined for them.

Ninety percent of the entire 1953 appropriation will be spent in local newspapers to bring the Clicquot Club story to the public.

“We believe that by placing our advertising directly in the newspapers in the areas serviced by Clicquot Club bottlers, we can best tell the American public about the goodness of our ginger ale and other drinks,” Barnard said.

After Kimball’s death on November 26, 1952, his lawyer, Thomas F. Black, Jr. assumed the presidency at Kimball’s request. The H. Kimball Foundation web site completes the story.

In the late fifties, officials of Veuve Clicquot (after whom the ginger ale had been originally named by Millis) threatened court action if the American soft drink manufacturer didn’t cease using the name Clicquot. Black traveled to France and a meeting was held at which it was agreed that the Millis based company would drop the name at an agreed upon future date.

Declining sales, increased competition and the thought of losing their long held name, probably had a lot to do with the company being sold to Cott Beverage of Connecticut in 1960.

The company operated a number of years under the direction of John Cott who continued to bottle Clicquot until the name change agreement went into effect. Cott Beverage was later sold to Canada Dry and the plant closed.

The Cliquot Club name completely disappeared from grocery store advertisements and price lists sometime in the early 1980’s.

Today, a smokestack associated with their plant still exists in Millis. Sadly, though not a surprise, this google maps image indicates that it’s now functioning as a cell phone tower.

The bottle I found is a machine made pint, typical of the bottle they used throughout much of their existence. The base of the bottle is embossed with a likeness of their trademark “Eskimo Boy.” The letters “A” & “B” are embossed on either side of the figure, suggesting it may have been made by the American Bottle Company. A “25” embossed below the “A” could indicate a 1925 manufacture date. The bottle appears identical to this one that appeared in a 1922 advertisement.

       

The presence of the Eskimo certainly dates it no earlier than 1913.

Clark Johnson (Dr. Clark Johnson’s Indian Blood Syrup)

 

In the 1870’s newspaper advertisements began appearing for a patent medicine called Dr. Clark Johnson’s Indian Blood Syrup. Like most patent medicines of the day their concoction was purported to provide a “speedy and PERMANENT CURE” for a wide range of ailments.

A series of advertisements appearing nation-wide in 1878 – 1879 told the following story which they’d have you believe accurately described the origins of this “Best Remedy Known to Man.”

Dr. Clark Johnson having associated himself with Mr. Edwin Eastman, an escaped captive, long a slave to Wakametkia, the medicine man of the Comanches, is now prepared to lend his aid in the introduction of the wonderful remedy of that tribe…

Suffice to say, that for several years, Mr. Eastman, while a captive, was compelled to gather the roots, gums, barks, herbs and berries of which Wakametkia’s medicine was made, and is still prepared to provide the same materials for the successful introduction of the medicine to the world; and assures the public that the remedy is the same now as when Wakametkia compelled him to make it.

If that wasn’t convincing enough you could purchase the entire story entitled “Seven and Nine Years Among the Camanches and Apaches,” for $1.00.

Their advertisements called it:

A neat volume of 300 pages, being a simple statement of the horrible facts connected with the sad massacre of a helpless family and the captivity, torture and ultimate escape of its two surviving members.

The title page of the story associated Dr. Clark Johnson, M. D. with Jersey City, N. J. at the time it was published in 1874. However, as you might have guessed, there’s no record of a Dr. Clark Johnson that I could find in either the Jersey City directories or the census records from around that time.

A monthly column entitled “Sundry Humbugs,”published in the December, 1873 edition of a publication called the “American Agriculturist,” told the real story, prominently featuring “Dr. Clark Johnson” as an example of blatant patent medicine fraud. The story revealed that the actual origins of the syrup and the business that manufactured it involved a man named Dr. E. P. Huylar who operated out of a building on the corner of Thompson Street and Amity Street (later renamed West 3rd St) in Manhattan. The story described Dr. Huyler’s medical qualifications, tongue in cheek, like this:

He followed a very peculiar course of study to acquire his title. He sold stoves and sewing machines, baked bread, took photographs, peddled tobacco, traveled with a fakir show, and finally became an M. D.

The story then went on to describe the operation.

Their “cure all” is or was a compound of aloes, cayenne pepper, molasses,  muriatic acid and other cheap and nauseous drugs. We would give the recipe as it was in full, but the above is all that is necessary to show what kind of stuff it is. They sell it under various names of “Mother Noble’s Healing Syrup;” “Wine of Apocynum,” supposed to be run from 236 and 238 Thompson Street, the side basement door of 77 Amity Street; “The Electric Health Restorer,” from the same number as the Apocynum; and “Dr. Clark’s Indian Blood Syrup.” This last is advertised from Jersey City. All letters which come to that address are taken from the post office by a messenger, carried to 77 Amity Street, New York City, and there attended to. The various enterprises are supposed to be run by Abel King, M.D., Dr. Clark Johnson, Edwin Eastman, Israel Goodspeed, and others. It is needless to say such persons never existed; they are purely creatures of imagination; only other names for this Doctor Huylar.

According to the “Statement of Facts” in a subsequent court case (Clark Johnson Medicine Company vs. Allen S. Olmsted ) the fictitious doctor’s name “may be traced to the fact Mrs. Huylar’s father’s name was Clark Johnson.”

The American Agriculturist story went on to say that the publication “Seven and Nine Years Among the Comanches and Apaches, was actually “the joint production of two of Huylar’s clerks.”

Early New York City directories support the American Agriculturist version of the story. Edward P. Huylar was first listed with the occupation of physician in 1870/1871 and by 1872/1873 he had relocated to 77 Amity Street. A year later his occupation in the directories changed to patent medicine.  In the late 1870’s  Amity Street was renamed West 3rd Street changing Huylar’s address to 77 West 3rd Street. The business operated out of that location until the mid-1890’s and despite the American Agriculturist espose’ the operation was apparently very successful during this time.

In the early 1880’s the business advertised quite a bit, relying heavily on testimonials. (Likely written by the same clerks who wrote their 300 page tome.) In New York City, their advertisements included full page spreads in the major daily’s including the New York Times. This advertisement which took up the entire Page 6 of the Times’ March 8, 1881 edition was typical. Under a huge headline it proceeded to deliver a full six columns of testimonials devoted to the successful cure of specific conditions; dyspepsia and indigestion (2 columns), liver complaint (2 columns), rheumatism and kidney complaint (1 column) and chills and fever (1 column).

According to the advertisement the business did not employ a traveling sales force but instead relied exclusively on wholesalers and agents to distribute their product. The seventh column provided a list of those wholesalers in New York City.

It wasn’t just a local business however, and the column went on to list wholesalers nationwide, including several north of the border in Canada.

Huylar, along with his wife Martha, ran the business until he passed away in 1889.  The following year, on May 1, 1890, Martha sold the business to George Mellville Hard for the sum of $45,000. At the time Hard was also president of the Chatam National Bank,  According to the bill of sale dated May 1, 1890 (found as Plantiff’s Exhibit D in Clark Johnson Medicine Company vs. Allen S. Olmsted) the sale included:

…the entire patent medicine business heretofore carried on by me or my Husband at No. 77 West Third Street and Nos. 236 & 238 Thompson Street in the City of New York, including the good will of such business, all outstanding book accounts against any person pertaining to such business, which in my opinion will aggregate in amount to between twenty thousand and thirty thousand dollars, any and all trademarks, labels, copyrights or other prints, heretofore used in the said business in the sale of the following remedies viz: Dr. Clark Johnson’s Indian Blood Syrup, Cornease, Mother Noble’s Healing Syrup, Sister Agnes Herb Cure, The Electric Health Restorer, Wine of Apocynum and any other medicines or remedies heretofore  manufactured or sold in said Business, also the formula or recipe in writing which is herewith delivered with this bill of sale…

After purchasing the business Hard immediately transferred it to the Clark Johnson Medicine Company, a New York Corporation whose certificate of incorporation had been filed two days earlier on April 29, 1890. The initial directors of this new corporation were Hard, Charles H. Simpson and William H. Osborne.

In the mid-1890’s, the company moved to 17 Lispenard Street in Manhattan where it was still listed in the 1919 NYC Copartnership and Corporation Directory with one of the original directors,William H. Osborne, as president. In the early 1920’s the company moved again and from 1922 to 1931 they listed their address as 510 (sometimes 508) Broome Street. As far as I can tell the business disappeared from the NYC directories in the early 1930’s (they’re not listed in 1933).

By the early 1900’s the manufacture and sale of Clark Johnson’s Indian Blood Syrup was certainly being impacted by the nation’s food and drug laws. The last newspaper advertisement I can find for the product was in the December 30, 1914 edition of the of the Richmond (Indiana) Item. While still outlandish, the advertisement’s copy had been toned down, no longer using the word cure.

Though no longer advertising in the newspapers, this December, 1917 advertisement in a trade publication called the “National Druggist” suggested that they were still pushing it with their wholesalers and agents at that time.

I’ve seen the Indian Blood Syrup included in published drug price lists up through the early 1920’s. The last price listing I can find was in the October, 1923 edition of the Southern Pharmaceutical Journal and Drug Price Review.

However, as late as October 14, 1932 a shipment of six dozen bottles was confiscated in violation of the Food and Drugs Act. Assuming it was produced at around the same time it was shipped, it’s likely both the company and product end date was sometime in the early 1930’s.

Today the 77 West 3rd Street and 17 Lispenard Street addresses are encompassed by modern buildings that do not date back to the business. According to streeteasy.com, 508 – 510 Broome Street was built in 1900 so it’s the building that the business relocated to sometime between 1919 and 1921.

The bottle I found is a mouth blown, roughly 4 oz. medicine. The name “Clark Johnson” is embossed on one of the narrow side panels. The bottle is identical to this labeled example recently offered for sale on the internet.

It was sold in both small and large sizes. Based on this labeled example I’ve found the small size. It was yours in 1879 for $0.50.

If you’re interested, the directions for use were included on the back label of the pictured bottle.

From 15 to 30 drops three times a day, in a wine glass of milk or water, is the usual dose for an adult. Should this move the bowels too freely, reduce the dose; if not enough, increase it. Take the medicine INSTANTLY after eating. It is in a very strong and concentrated form and should not be taken clear. In all cases it is better to begin with smaller doses than directed and increase the dose as found necessary.

The syrup can be used externally in cases of Old Sores and Skin Diseases.

Empire Bottling Works, Rockaway Beach, New York

    

The Empire Bottling Works was established in June, 1905. Nathan Goldberg was named as one of the four original directors and apparently the one actively involved in the management of the business. A Russian immigrant, prior to establishing the bottling business Goldberg lived on Second Street in Manhattan where he listed his occupation as  “hotel keeper” in the 1900 census records.

The company’s incorporation notice was published in the June 10, 1905 edition of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle.

The 1913/1914 Copartnership and Corporation Directory of Brooklyn and Queens continued to associate Nathan Goldberg with the business listing him as president of the company. His son Samuel, a lawyer by trade was named vice president.

The business was located in a small portion of Rockaway Beach called Hammels for most if not all of their history.

Initially, a September 5, 1906 story in the Times Union mentioned that the Empire Bottling Works was located at 23 and 25 South Hammel Avenue (later named Beach 85th Street), which they went on to say was also the dwelling of Nathan Goldberger.

Later directories and tax certificates between 1906 and 1927 listed the business on Division Avenue (later named Beach 82nd Street) near Boulevard.  At times they also used a Boulevard address (both 497 and 522 were listed at various times).

Their 1905 incorporation notice only mentioned mineral waters but the company certainly bottled beer as well. This is confirmed by a labeled bottle that recently appeared for sale on the internet. The label named the Empire Bottling Works of Rockaway Beach as the local bottler for Koehler & Co.s Fidelio Beer.  Information on Koehler & Co.and Fidelio Beer is available in more detail within another post on this site.  Fidelio Brewery, New York

   

By 1928 the business was listed at 75-18 Rockaway Beach Boulevard which was technically just outside of Hammels. As far as I can tell Goldberg’s wife Yetta was listed as a widow in the 1930 census records so its quite possible that the business ended around that time. The company was not listed in the 1940 Queens phone book. (I don’t have access to any directory information from the 1930’s.)

The bottle I found is 27 ounces and machine made.

 

Union Hill B. B. Co., 6 – 8 Monitor St., Brooklyn N. Y.

The Union Hill Birch Beer Company was listed in the Brooklyn directories from 1904 t0 1951, always with an address of 6 Monitor Street.

Edward C. Hindermann was named as the owner of the business in his October 30, 1959 obituary that was printed in the Geenpoint Weekly Star.  Born in 1872, 1910 census records indicate that he immigrated to the United States in 1901. The 1904 Brooklyn Directory listed Hindermann’s residence as 8 Monitor Street, right next door to the business, suggesting that it was a relatively small operation.

The 1910 census records also listed a Dieterich Benken living at the same 8 Monitor Street address. Benken, like Hindermann, listed his occupation as a birch beer manufacturer so he was likely associated with the business, but in what capacity is unknown.

Hindermann was still living at 8 Monitor Street when he died on October 24, 1959.

There’s not much information available on the company which is another indication that it was not a large business. I did find one reference to it in a column entitled “I Remember Old Brooklyn,” in the March 22, 1965 edition of the New York Daily News. A reader had submitted this story to the newspaper.

PICNIC LUNCH

When the St. Nicholas Band struck up a tune with fifes, drums and bugles, that was a signal that we St. Nicholas pupils were starting off on a picnic to Washington Park on Grand St., Elmhurst.

The band would parade through the neighborhood and stop at Grand and Olive Sts. We would pile aboard chartered trolley cars at 7 A.M. with shoe boxes full of lunch, enough for all day.

Our tickets cost 15 cents, including three stubs, each good for a glass of Union Hill birch beer. The beer was on tap at the park for us. Then the trolleys would take us back at 7 P.M.

Today 6 – 8 Monitor Street does not date back to the early 1900’s

The bottle I found is 27 ounces and machine made. A monogram is embossed on the back of the bottle that, as far as I can tell, represents Hindermann’s initials “E H.”