W. H. Miner, Chazy, N. Y.


The W stands for William H. Miner. An inventor, businessman and philanthropist, in 1903 he established the “Heart’s Delight Farm” in Chazy New York, a small hamlet about 50 miles south of Montreal, Canada, where he spent much of his childhood. His obituary, printed in the April 5, 1930 edition of the Burlington (Vermont) Free Press, described the start of the farm.

Mr. Miner was reputed to have amassed a fortune of $90,000,000 through the invention and manufacture of freight car couplings and other freight car equipment. He left Chazy 45 years ago to seek his fortune with $22 in his pocket.

He lived in Chicago until 28 years ago when, with Mrs. Miner he moved (back) to Chazy and established a residence there on a 40-acre farm. The following year he purchased 400 acres adjoining, and continued to add to his estate year by year until the entire property, known as “Heart’s Delight Farm” now consists of about 10,000 acres. On this farm is one of the show places of the “north country,” a large game reserve filled with herds of buffalo, elk and deer.

A September 22, 1912 story about Miner appeared in the Louisville, Kentucky’s Courier Journal. It contained a sketch that I presume represented the farm buildings around that time.

Excerpts from that story provide a description of the farm in 1912.

On his estate he employs 400 men. Three beautiful streams flow through the farm. There are hundreds of charming cottages and artistic farm structures. He has built miles of macadamized road through the property, and made the 11,000 acres, not only a paradise for man but a paradise for animals. There are herds of buffalo and herds of elk. Deer wander over the land, gentle and free. He has homes for the birds, wild and tame. There are flocks of golden pheasants and multitudes of partridges…

Black bass and trout abound in his lakes and brooks. He has five lakes on his estate. The largest, Lake Alice, is named in honor of his wife.

To get water power for generating electricity he has built a dam 5,700 feet long – the largest private dam in the world. Every mechanical appliance that can be employed on the farm to advantage he uses. He lights his roads and he lights all the buildings on his great estate by electricity. Not only that, but he furnishes light and power to the people of the little village of Chazy free…

He raises many thousands of bushels of corn, of wheat, of oats, of rye, of barley, of buckwheat and thousands of tons of alfalfa. All his grain is ground in his own grist mill and fed to the farm animals. He has perhaps the finest herd of Holstein cattle in the world. He has the champion bull and the champion butter cow of the universe. He has the champion Percheron stallion too. His Chesire White and his Yorkshire hogs have made a wide reputation…

The story also touches on Miner’s human side, describing how his employees were treated.

To those of his employees who are married he furnishes cottages rent free. His unmarried male employees live in clubs of fifteen. Each one of these clubs has a library, a reading room, a billiard table and a music room. He is a great believer in the virtue of water. There are lots of bathtubs in every dwelling house on his estate, and every house has plumbing that is high grade and sanitary. Every house, from his own down to that of the farm hand, has hot water, cold water and spring water taps.

According to the Miner Institute’s web site, by 1918 the farm had grown to 12,000 acres – 4,000 acres of tillable land, 2,000 acres of pasture, and 6,000 acres of woodland –  and the farm:

had it’s own dairy, box factory, ice house, natatorium, greenhouses and grist mill. There was a 20 – bedroom guest house and an entertainment center called Harmony Hall, which included an auditorium complete with a stage that could accommodate 300 persons.

After his death in 1930, Miner’s will provided for the establishment of the Miner Institute, a school and farm devoted to teaching scientific and environmentally sound agricultural practices to the farmers and youth of northern New York. Today, the Miners Institute offers educational programs in dairy and equine management and environmental science.  It also operates revenue producing dairy and equine farms.

The bottle I found is mouth blown with external threads and the cap is still mostly intact. It most likely dates to the first decade or two of the farm. I just can’t figure out what it might have contained.

Horlick’s Malted Milk, Racine, Wis., U.S.A., London, Eng.

Horlick’s Malted Milk began manufacture in the late 1800’s and is still produced today by the GlaxoSmithKline plc, a British company headquartered in Brentford, London. According to the Horlicks web site:

Horlick’s was invented by two British-born men, William Horlick (1846-1936) and his brother James (1844-1921) from Gloucestershire, England. James was a chemist, working for a company that made dried baby food. William, the younger brother, had immigrated to America in 1869 and James decided to join him in Chicago in 1873. That same year, they started their own company (J&W Horlicks) to make a malted milk drink. They called their product “Diastoid” and their advertising slogan read: Horlick’s Infant and Invalid Food”

In 1875 the business moved to the outskirts of Racine Wisconsin, and up until 1883 they continued to use the name J&W Horlick. The 1882 Racine City Directory lists them as:

J&W Horlick (James and William Horlick) manufacturers of Horlick’s Food and Dry Extract of Malt. Rapids Road.

In 1883, the business incorporated under the name Horlick’s Food Company. They established a factory on Northwestern Avenue and around this time began using the factory location as their address. Early directories that I was able to find (1888, 1890, 1897, 1901, 1902, 1904, 1910, 1914 and 1916)  listed their address as simply “Northwestern Avenue near the city line.” All of these directories, list James as president and William as secretary/treasurer. Sometime between 1905 and 1910, the business changed it’s name to the Horlick’s Malted Milk Co.

After James’s death in 1921, William became president. The 1929 directory lists William as president and his sons William Horlick Jr and A.J. Horlick as vice presidents.

These early years of the business were featured in a history of Racine Wisconsin called “Racine Belle City of the Lakes and Racine County, Wisconsin, Volume II, published in 1916. It’s a little long and some facts, as presented, differ from the information found in the city directories, but all in all it paints a vivid picture of the company at the time including it’s product development, facilities, relationship with it’s employees and economic importance to Racine.

The name of no productive industry of the United States is perhaps more widely known than that of the Horlick Malted Milk Company, the business of which has developed until it reaches all parts of the civilized world. The company was organized in 1875 and was incorporated in 1878 as the Horlick Food Company by William and James Horlick, brothers, who established their plant in the outskirts of Racine, in Mount Pleasant Township. They began to manufacture a product known as Horlick’s Food, which was a prepared food for infants, invalids and the aged, to be added to milk to modify and enrich it. Their sales at the time covered only Chicago and vicinity. William Horlick, however, realized the great disadvantage of all foods for infants that required the addition of fresh milk, owing to the difficulty of obtaining fresh milk and keeping it so. He therefore began experimenting with the purpose of producing a pure food product containing adequate proportion of pure, rich milk – a food that would complete in itself, that would keep indefinitely in any climate and would be free from all the dangers arising from the use of milk that is impure, adulterated, laden with disease germs or in any way rendered unfit for use. Moreover, he desired that this food should be not only absolutely safe but very nourishing and easily digested by the most delicate infant or invalid, while it should contain at the same time all the elements of nutrition. In carrying on the work of experimentation Mr. Horlick met with many disappointments and leading chemists claimed that it was both a chemical and mechanical impossibility to perfect such a food, advising him to abandon the idea. He never faltered in his purpose, however, notwithstanding his heavy losses of time and expense, and at the end of six years, or in 1887, he produced for the first time in the world’s history a food product in powder form containing clean, rich milk combined with extract of malted barley and wheat that would keep indefinitely. The value of such a product was at once apparent and the business grew by leaps and bounds, so that it was difficult to make the supply meet the demand. A program of building was instituted. New buildings were added from time to time of reinforced concrete construction and the plant today covers an area of fifteen acres. In 1902 plant No. 2 was built, being a duplicate of plant No. 1, and in 1905 plant No. 3 came into existence, a triplicate of the others, but subject to enlargement. Since then the old buildings have all been rebuilt in concrete and steel. All rooms are large and well lighted and there is a perfect fire protection. Sanitation and cleanliness are among the basic elements of the business. There is a forced system of ventilation through the plant, the air being washed by sprays of water.

To maintain such a plant necessitated the employment of a large force of people and in developing the plant the company has shown marked consideration for the welfare of the employees. They maintain an athletic association and there is a whist club and a cricket club for employees and also an employees’ beneficial association. On the pay roll are found three hundred and fifty names. The department of agriculture of the State University at Madison says that the standard of dairying in this part of Wisconsin has been raised very largely owing to the rules of the Horlick factory in regard to the production of good, clean milk and the example furnished therein. Nearly every city in the United States has asked for a copy of the rules of this plant for the production and care of pure milk and these rules have constituted the basis for much municipal legislation in regard to the milk supply of cities. William Horlick owns personally several farms upon which are several hundred head of cows and he also buys milk from one hundred and fifty farmers. In 1915 the company erected a new milk house which is one of the finest in the country.

The process employed in the manufacture of the food consists in boiling the milk in a vacuum, which enables them to boil it without heating above one hundred and forty degrees, for milk “cooks” at one hundred and fifty-six degrees. This results, therefore, in removing all water without cooking. The company has a plant in Slough, England, equal to the No. 2 plant of Racine, and supplies from that point Europe, Africa and a part of India. The trade today covers the entire world, shipments leaving for all parts of the world every week. Every Arctic explorer for the past twenty years has carried a supply of Horlick’s malted milk in powder and lunch tablet form, for it supplies more nutrition to the bulk than any other food and people have lived for many years with no other sustenance. It is standard with all the armies of the world and is regarded as an indispensable accessory on all exploration and camping trips.

In 1889 James Horlick went to New York, where he established a branch, and in 1890 opened the English branch and since that time has been in charge of the English plant. He is the president of the company. William Horlick has been managing director of the home plant and has always lived in Racine. He is secretary and treasurer of the company and his two sons are actively associated with him, the elder, A.J., being vice president of the company, with William Horlick, Jr. as secretary. In 1906 the name was changed to Horlick’s Malted Milk Company. There is no other enterprise that has made Racine as well known throughout the world as this product, today used in every civilized country on the face of the globe.

The story mentions that James went to New York in 1889 to start a branch and then moved on to England in 1890 but the NYC directories say otherwise. There’s no mention of James or the business in the 1889 or 1891 NYC directories but James is listed in the 1892 directory. In that directory, and that directory only, he’s listed at 230 Pearl with the title President. I can’t find any mention of Horlick’s in NYC again until 1904 so it doesn’t appear that James established a NY branch at that point though he may have laid the groundwork.

In 1904 A. J. Horlick, one of William’s sons, is listed as a director in a company called H.W. St John & Co. with an address of 239 South Street. Then between 1905 and 1925 Horlick’s Food Co., and later, Horlick’s Malted Milk Co. is listed and H.W. St John & Co. is included in the listing as their agent. Based on the directories I can find they were located at 239 South Street (1905), 37 Pearl Street (1909 – 1917) and 18 Pearl Street (1918 – 1932). In 1948, H.W. St John & Co. is still listed at 18 Pearl but there’s no mention of Horlick’s.

H.W. St John is still in business today. Their web site calls them freight forwarders and says they were founded in 1902. Based on the fact that A.J. Horlick was one of their early (and probably initial) directors, I have to think that the Horlick’s were instrumental in starting the company in NY as an instrument to distribute their products.

As described in the above feature, the secret to Horlick’s success was developing the process of drying milk into a powder. They obtained a patent (278967A) for the process entitled “Granulated food for infants and process of preparing the same” on June 5, 1883, not 1887 as stated in the story. Four years later, in 1887, they trademarked the name “malted milk. The 1883 date is confirmed in a Horlick advertisement entitled “A Discovery that Benefits Mankind” found in the June 25, 1919 issue of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle.

A 1921 National Association of Retail Druggists price list demonstrated that by then they were not only selling malted milk in different size cans or jars including a “hospital” size but also selling what they called “malted milk lunch tablets.”

Originally intended for infants and invalids, Horlick’s malted milk was a perfect fit for the back packs of explorers and soldiers. According to the Horlick’s web site the drink has made it’s way to both the North and South poles and in fact, Richard Byrd named the Horlicks Mountains on the Ross Ice Shelf in honor of the company’s $30,000 sponsorship.

The 15 acre factory site, located on Northwestern Avenue must have been in a constant state of flux what with the constant building additions and modifications described in the story. The grounds however appeared to be kept perfectly manicured at all times. A February 1912 article in the Practical Druggist summed it up this way:

To gain an adequate idea of the extreme beauty of the surroundings of the Horlick plant, one must visit it during the summer, when the eye can feast on the vision of green turf, the abundant foliage and many-hued flowers and the lagoon.

A couple of Horlick postcards capture both the size of the operation and the impeccable landscaping.

According to a 2001 article in the “Journal Times” the Company shut down in 1975. Today, some of the Horlick building complex remains. Haban Manufacturing was utilizing a portion of it to manufacture snow blowers and related equipment but that company went out of business in 2000.

This photo appears to be the current view of the building to the right in the first Horlick Post Card above.

The jar I found is early machine made and embossed with both Racine and London locations. According to the Horlick’s current web site they established the London factory in 1908 so I assume it was manufactured after that. It was probably wrapped in paper as evidenced by this early 1920’s advertisement from the Brooklyn Daily Eagle that pictures what they call “the old reliable round package”

Huyler’s, New York

According to the “History of Huyler’s Candy Company” by Jennifer Walkowski excerpted from the “Huyler’s Candy Company Building (in Buffalo NY) Nomination for Listing on the State and National Registers of Historic Places:

Huyler’s chocolate and candy company was once the largest and most prominent chocolate maker in the United States. Headquartered in New York City, the Huyler’s company operated a large chain of Huyler’s branded stores across the country in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and their high-quality chocolate products were a part of daily life, given as holiday gifts, used as special indulgences and as treats for young girls and boys.

It is said that Milton Hershey worked at Huyler’s in the mid 1880’s before moving to Pennsylvania and starting the Hershey Co.

The company was founded by John S. Huyler.

His obituary in the October 1, 1910 issue of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle describes the early days of the business

Mr. Hurley was born in Manhattan in 1846, his father being David Huyler. In 1875 he started the business which proved to be the foundation of his fortune, on Broadway near Eighteenth Street, Manhattan. There it was that he made the announcement of “Huyler’s Taffy. Fresh Every Hour.”

This proved a trademark that was on everyone’s tongue, while the candies were in so many mouths that the business speedily grew to immense proportions, and branches were established all over Manhattan Borough.

In 1881 Mr. Huyler formed a corporation under the name of “John S. Huyler” of which his father, David, was made the president. It is a family corporation. Mr. Huyler’s father dying in 1885, John S. became the president in his stead. There are about sixty Huyler stores all over the country. Nineteen are in Manhattan, four are in Brooklyn, and there are branch stores in Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Chicago, Cincinnati, Newark, Atlantic City, Long Branch, Newport and other cities. The factory is in Manhattan.

The growth referred to in the obituary is documented in the New York City Directories.

  • The 1876/1877 Directory listed John S. Huyler at his first location at 863 Broadway. His occupation is listed as “candy and old fashioned molasses candy”
  • By 1886, the factory and offices had been established at 64 Irving Place and were listed along with what appear to be three Manhattan retail locations; the original store at 863 Broadway as well as 150 Broadway and 17 W. 42nd Street.
  • By 1905, two additional Manhattan retail locations were added; 508 Fifth Avenue (pictured below) and 469 Broadway.
  • Then four years later in 1909, in addition to the Irving Place factory and offices, the number of Manhattan retail locations had soared to 21 (as opposed to 19 mentioned in the obituary).

Most of the NYC store openings were announced in the Brooklyn Daily Eagle. The announcements provide some insight into the store decor and products. The following is from the June 14, 1906 issue of the Brookyn Daily Eagle announcing the opening of the store at 81 Nassau Street.

Another Huyler store has opened at 81 Nassau Street, Manhattan, where the well-known Huyler candies and chocolates will be on sale to relieve the rush of their other downtown stores. The new store makes eleven opened by Huyler in greater New York, and the twenty-sixth in the chain of stores operated directly by the Huyler Corporation in various parts of the States and Canada. The store is handsomely appointed, finished in mahogany and with a tasty color scheme carried out on walls, ceiling and decorations; it cannot fail to satisfy those who come in to enjoy their famous fountain drinks, which will be served to perfection. The store will have a soda counter fifty-five feet in length, able to accommodate the crowds that will flock there for their celebrated ice cream soda, phosphates, etc. It is located handier to the Wall Street and jewelers district than any other in their chain.

Another, this one in the May 14, 1908 issue announced a new store in Hudson Terminal (now the World Trade Center PATH Station) with a sales approach aimed at daily commuters. It describes a process that still thrives today in commuter terminals.

The opening of the latest Huyler store today in the Hudson Terminal Building at Cortlandt and Church Streets just west of Broadway is an instance of the up-to-dateness of the big company, which aims to keep its advance line of stores abreast of the shifting lines of demand. For customers in a hurry to catch ferries or elevated trains they will make a special feature of carrying in stock a full supply of freshly packed boxes ready to carry without a moments delay…

John Huyler was a man who apparently appreciated those who worked for him as evidenced by this paragraph that was included in his obituary:

He was in the habit of giving his employees in Manhattan an annual outing, hiring a steamboat for the day. It was also his policy to look after the welfare of old employees, providing them with a home. He purchased ground on the Hudson for that purpose. He was also a generous contributor to Syracuse University, a Methodist institution, of which he was a trustee. He recently made a gift of $20,000 to that institution.

After his death, the business remained in the Huyler family. The 1915 NYC Directory listed Frank DeKlyn Huyler, his oldest son, as president, B. F. DeKlyn, a relative by marriage, as Vice president, and two other sons, David and Coulter as treasurer and secretary respectively. By this time the retail store count had reached 23 Manhattan locations and another 5 in Brooklyn.

In the early 1920’s, Huyler’s began expanding outside of the candy world, opening restaurants. An announcement in the December 13, 1924 issue of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle for a new store in Brooklyn described both the restaurant and the target audience.

Huyler’s are opening a new store at 529 Fulton Street, between Duffield and Gold Streets, Brooklyn, in the heart of the theatre and shopping district. Distinguished in the candy world for 50 successful years, they need no introduction to the Brooklyn public. Huyler’s candy has maintained its superiority for years and has become a standard of excellence today. The soda fountain should be mentioned also for it’s cleanliness and order, its efficient and tasteful service, and its delicious fresh fruit syrups.

The distinctive feature of the new store is a fine restaurant equipped with all the modern conveniences to meet the demands of the busy shopper as well as a more leisure tete-a-tete. You will find there all the refinement and good taste which characterizes all the Huyler’s restaurants.

A men’s grill in early American style will be opened very soon to serve the business man who insists on pleasant surroundings, as well as a well cooked, substantial meal at moderate prices.

A comfortable waiting room has been provided so that there need be no waiting in line during the rush hours.

The many friends and patrons of the Huyler’s store, located for years at 458 Fulton street, will be glad to know that this new store is opening almost directly across the street, and that it will be managed by Miss Godsil, well known and liked by a highly esteemed clientele.

Finally, after 50 years, the family sold the business in 1925. Subsequently owned by several different entities, I don’t find any advertisements for them after the early 1950’s. The original store location was still in business as late as 1944 as evidenced by a June 28 classified ad that used the 863 Broadway address.

The jar I found is a small (4 1/2 inches high), early machine made jar. A 1905 advertisement for Frederick Loeser & Co. listed Huyler jars that contained “assorted fruit balls, lemon balls and horehound sticks.”

It also could have contained powdered chocolate or cocoa which were also Huyler products.

Knapp’s Root Beer Extract

Knapp’s Root Beer Extract had it’s origins with the druggist P B Knapp whose business dates back to 1839. Knapp ran a medicine warehouse at 362 Hudson Street where he sold proprietary medicines, both wholesale and retail. The business was listed in the 1847 NYC Directory at that address and remained there through at least the early 1930’s.

Originally called “Knapp’s Extract of Roots,” an 1876 advertisement in the American Journal of Pharmacy stated in part that it’s “the extract from which the popular beverage known as Knapp’s Root Beer is made.”

The advertisement stated that Knapp’s Root Beer Extract “has been well established for over 30 years” and advertisements in later years state “Sold since 1839.” This dates the product to right about the start of the business.

The first advertisement I could find for Knapp’s was in a July, 1859 edition of the Burlington (Vt) Daily Times. Apparently someone name H.N. Coon was making Root Beer from their extract and selling it in the ‘Irving Saloon.” That night you could have had a glass of Knapp’s Root Beer with your fresh lobster!

An 1863 advertisement in the New York Times stated:

One of the pleasantest and healthiest beverages known is made from the extract, and its invigorating qualities are such as to recommend it alike to the invalid, as well as those in the enjoyment of good health.

The advertisement went on to target a wide and varied audience.

Druggists, masters of vessels, hotel keepers, root beer makers, sutlers in the army and private families, etc. will find it to their advantage to use this invaluable compound, as it will insure to them at all times a healthy and delicious beverage.

Around 1883, the name of the product was modified from “Extract of Roots” to “Root Beer Extract” but continued to be advertised by P B Knapp (by this time it’s P B Knapp & Sons).

It’s around 1889 that their famous trademark “the genius of the bottle” began to appear in advertisements. One from the May 16, 1891 issue of the Brooklyn Daily Eagle pictured the trade mark and stated:

The genius of the bottle. He cheers but not inebriates. He is the genius of Knapp’s Root Beer Extract Bottle and the refreshing servant of all who wish for a glass of root beer in five minutes.

The above advertisement was certainly designed for appeal to the temperance movement. Two other 1891 advertisements, one from the May 21, 1891 issue of the NY Herald and another from the June 8, 1891 issue of the Port Jervis Evening Gazette serve to make the same point at the expense of Rip Van Winkle.

Hello, Rip Van Winkle! What a pity you don’t drink Root Beer made from Knapp’s Root Beer Extract; it doesn’t inebriate.

Do you remember how Joe Jefferson as Rip Van Winkle is constantly saying “may you live long and prosper.” Would have been better for Rip had he taken nothing stronger than beer made from Knapp’s Root Beer Extract.

Sometime in the early 1890’s, the manufacture and marketing of Knapp’s Root Beer Extract shifted from PB Knapp & Sons to the Knapp Extract Co.

The first listing for the Knapp Extract Co. that I can find is in the 1894 NYC Directory with an address of 168 Duane Street. They remained at this address until 1910, when they moved to 85 Warren Street. They remained listed at that address through 1912. During this period, there appears to be no connection between P B Knapp & Sons and the Knapp Extract Co. They both maintained different addresses and there were no common principals that I can identify.

Soon after 1912, the product was discontinued.  The following notice appeared in the National Provisioner as well as several other publications:


About one hundred gross Knapp’s Root Beer Extract regular packages. Manufacture being discontinued. Send best cash offer. Knapp Extract Co., 554 W 183rd Street, New York.

I can’t find a listing for Knapp’s Extract Co for this address or time frame so I assume it was just rented space used for storage.

The Knapp Extract Co is no longer listed in the 1914 or 1915 NYC Directories.

So, how does one make root beer from root beer extract? Well, this 1893 advertisement touts that one bottle of the root beer extract, combined with 6 gallons of water, one cake of fresh compressed yeast and four pounds of granulated sugar makes 6 gallons of root beer. The advertisement goes on to state that that their root beer is the “most delicious, health-giving and invigorating drink” and suggests that it is a healthier alternative than ice water (4 lbs of sugar not withstanding!!!).

Today, the building at 168 Duane Street was built in 1910, so it looks like their 1910 move from Duane Street to Warren Street was necessitated by the demolition required to build the building that’s there today. The former footprint of 85 Warren Street is now part of 275 Greenwich Street, a modern structure.

The bottle I found is small, rectangular and mouth blown with the little genius trade mark embossed on it. Based on this I’d say it was made no earlier than 1889 and as late as 1912, the estimated end date of the product. The back of the bottle would have had a label similar to one I saw on E-Bay that is pictured below.





Wm F Voigt, 452 E 78th Street, New York


Carl and William F Voigt were brothers, both of whom immigrated from Germany, settled in the Yorkville section of Manhattan and were involved in the pickle/horseradish business.

A book by Richard Panchyk entitled “German New York City” tells Carl’s story:

Carl Frederick Voigt, born in 1848 came to New York City from Eisenberg Saxony in 1866. He originally lived on the Bowery but later moved to Yorkville and founded a pickle works there on East 78th Street. Although the factory made and bottled pickled beets and mussels, their specialty was horseradish. He is shown (a picture of a stocky man sitting with two standing young boys) in about 1892 with young sons Jacob and William both of whom worked for the family business. The horseradish root was ground by hand, prepared from a special recipe and bottled, and then the condiments were loaded onto a horse drawn cart and delivered to saloons and hotels around the neighborhood. After Carl’s death in 1906, his sons carried on the business. Sometime around 1920, Best Foods offered to buy the Voigts out, but the deal fell through and the business was finished.

The NYC directories generally support the above story. The first listing I can find for Carl (Chas)Voigt was in the 1881 NYC Directory, located at 1472 First Avenue with the occupation “preserves.” Over the next 20 years he was listed at 1472 First Avenue (1880 to 1886) and 1483 Avenue A (1889 to 1896). Both locations were within a block or so of 78th Street in Yorkville. It appears that Carl’s son Jacob got involved in the business around 1900. The 1901 directory refers to the business as C.F. Voigt  & Son (Charls F. and Jacob W). At this point the business was located on 74th St. and later 76th Street.

According to census records, William F Voight was six years younger than Carl and arrived in the US several years later in 1871. NYC Directories indicated that William was located at 452 East 78th Street from 1891 to 1905. During much of this time Carl’s address was 1483 Avenue A. As best as I can tell, it appears that both addresses were either associated with the same building located on the corner of 78th Street and York Avenue or across the street from each other. It’s not clear if the businesses were ever connected.

After 1905, NYC Directories and census records for 1910 and 1920 listed William as a clerk, laborer and later foreman in the pickle business so it looks like he ended his own business and started working for someone else. By then his listed residential address was on East 84th Street. He passed away in 1920.

NYBits.com indicates that the current building at 452 East 78th Street was built in 1910 but I’m not convinced. It’s a four story “walk-up” with a commercial store on York Avenue and a residential entrance on 78th Street. The 1892 photograph mentioned in the story sure looks like it was taken in front of the residential entrance.

The bottle I found has a round shape (approximately 5 oz) and I thought it was a medicine until I did the research. Now I’m convinced it contained horseradish. Wiliiam’s name and the 452 E 78th Street address is embossed on it, so it dates between 1891 and 1905.

In response to this post, I was contacted by a Voigt family member who confirmed that William and Carl ran two separate businesses. William’s was quite impressive and included an upstate farm to supply the business. Carl’s was called Voigt’s Red Horseradish.

L Rose & Co


According to Grace’s Guide to British Industrial History, Lauchlan Rose established L. Rose & Co in 1865 in Leith, Edinburg, Scotland. The company sold a concentrated brand of fruit juices.

After starting the business, Rose developed and patented a process that effectively prevented fermentation and preserved fruit juice without alchohol. Prior to development of this process they preserved fruit juice by mixing in 15% rum. At about the same time, the Merchant Shipping Act of 1867 was passed making it compulsory for ships to carry limejuice to combat scurvy, which is caused by a deficiency of Vitamin C. As a result of these two factors, the company experienced a significant increase in demand for their product, fueling their growth.

An advertisement for L Rose & Co’s Patent Preserved West India Lime Juice and Cordial appears in the Central Advertiser of the March 7, 1868 issue of The Lancet – A Journal of British and Foreign Medicine. It touts its medicinal properties as “antiscorbutic, highly beneficial in Rheumatism, an excellent tonic, also a cooling drink for heat in blood and skin. Sold by grocers, wine and spirit merchants, confectioners and chemists.”

Their unique bottle design that includes embossed lime leaves and fruit has been part of the packaging dating back to at least 1880. This is confirmed by the following advertisement contained in the Church of Englnd Temperance Chronical dated July 17, 1880.

Messrs. Rose & Co. as the original manufacturers and patentees of the lime juice beverages prepared from the West India lime fruit, now so favorably known as supplying delicious, wholesome beverages, highly medicinal, preserved without the aid of spirits, beg to caution buyers against the now numerous imitations of these beverages, more especially of their LimeJuice Cordial, by rectifiers, wine makers and others. As protection against such, Messrs. Rose & Co have adopted glass stoppered bottles engraved with the lime fruit as trade mark, specially manufactured for them, and registered, the labels also bearing the signature of the firm. Purchasers are respectfully requested to order Rose’s Lime Juice Cordial, and other beverages noted below (Rose’s Limetta Ginger Cordial and Rose’s Prepared Lime Juice) to protect themselves further against such imitations.

The advertisement goes on to tout the following four products:

Rose’s Lime Juice Cordial – In water, or in soda, potass and other aerated waters, supplies a delicious beverage, effectually quenching thirst, cooling and refreshing the system. It will be found particularly agreeable blended with spirits, supplying a delicious stimulant, equaling the finest liqueurs, sustaining and invigorating; also forming an excellent substitute for the lemon as a flavoring in hot drinks, etc.

Rose’s Limetta Ginger Cordial – Is another form of the limejuice cordial, combined with ginger. Supplies an excellent stomachic. May be drank alone or in water or blended with spirits. As a drink for the cold season, it will be found particularly agreeable in hot water.

Rose’s Prepared Lime Juice – Is the refined juice of the lime fruit. It is used for the same purposes as the lemon, to which it is much superior as a medicinal agent, and its acidity considered more agreeable.

Rose’s Lime Juice Champagne – This agreeable sparkling wine, free from spirit, and retaining all the valuable medicinal properties of the lime fruit, has attained a high position in public estimation, and is highly recommended for its wholesome and medicinal properties. Furnishing a delightful and refreshing draught, it is particularly adapted for the ballroom, soiree and evening parties. In Champagne bottles, quarts and pints.


In 1891 the Company bought the Bath and Eishall Estates in Dominica and adapted an old sugar factory to the processing of limes. Fresh limes were annually shipped to North America while lime juice arrived in the U.S. from the U.K. In the 1920’s L Rose & Co was the main buyer of limes from across the island. Later, in the 1940’s the company also became known for its lime marmalade. Schwepps acquired L Rose & Co in 1957.

According to the 1884 edition of “NY’s Greatest Industries – It’s Leading Merchants and Manufacturers” W. Fleming & Co. first introduced L. Rose & Co.s lime juice into the U.S. in 1868. Founded in 1864, they were importers of fancy groceries, and at the time they were sole agents for L. Rose & Co.’s lime juice as well as Smith’s Edinburgh Oatmeal, Mackie’s Green-Ginger Cordial and Gray’s Scotch Marmalade and Jams. In 1884, they were located at 92 and 144 Reade Street. They later moved to 155 Duane Street (circa 1900) and 189 Duane Street (circa 1905). The company is listed as dissolved in the 1906 NYC Copartnership and Corporation Directory. It’s not clear if the W. Fleming & Co acted as Rose’s agent up until the mid-1900’s or who their U.S. agent was afterwards.

The bottle I found is mouth blown, roughly 6 to 8 ounces and is embossed with the L. Rose & Co. name as well as the trade-mark lime leaves and fruit. It probably held either the lime juice or one of the cordials.

D Cameron, New York


Donald Cameron was born in 1808, in the colony of Berbice, Dutch Guiana, moved to Scotland at an early age and was educated in Edinborough and London. In 1825 he entered the mercantile business and in 1855 came to the United States.

His story and that of his two sons, Donald S Cameron and Lambert van Battenberg Cameron is best told in “A History of Long Island – From It’s Earliest Settlement to the Present Time – Volume 2” published in 1902.

Soon after his arrival he entered the employ of John F Smith & Company of New York City as confidential clerk and bookkeeper. Three years later he became a member of the firm of John M. Smith, Son & Company, then among the largest provision shippers between New York and the West Indies. In 1884 was organized the firm of D. & D.S. Cameron, the eldest son of Mr. Cameron being the junior partner and this existed until after the death of the elder Cameron, which occurred July 31, 1888. At the time of his death, Donald Cameron was one of the oldest members of the New York Produce Exchange.

Lambert van Batenberg Cameron, second of the surviving sons of Donald Cameron was born in Brooklyn, September 9,1856… In 1880 he aided in the establishing the the firm (L.V.B. Cameron & Co.) which he is present head and manager. The principal business of the house is sugar brokerage, with large dealings in coffees, teas, syrups, etc.

Much of the history of the Cameron companies is confirmed in the various New York City Directories which list all three Camerons over a period from 1865 to at least 1925. They were labeled from directory to directory as either merchants, brokers, provisions, oil or sugar. All had common addresses for much of the period.

  • Donald Cameron was first listed in the 1864/1865 Directory as a merchant. Between 1865 and 1877 he’s listed individually and later, in the late 1870’s he started listing Donald Cameron & Co. as well. He started at 122 Broad Street and at some point moved to 116 Broad Street. By 1889 he’s no longer listed individually.
  • In 1878 D (Donald) Stuart Cameron joined Donald and they continue to be listed as Donald Cameron & Co from 1878 to approximately 1883. Later they were listed as D & DS Cameron. During this period they moved from 116 Broad Street to 2 Stone Street and end up at 100 Wall Street.
  • From 1883 to 1890, Lambert Cameron, was listed as a broker at 109 Water Street.
  • Around 1891 they came together at the 100 Wall Street address that included both D & D S Cameron and L V B Cameron & Co. By 1894, D & D S Cameron was no longer listed and soon after Donald S, Lambert and LVB Cameron & Co were all located at 121 Front Street. Lambert V B Cameron and Donald Stuart Cameron were both listed as principals in L V B Cameron & Co in the 1900 NYC Copartnersip and Corporation Directory but only Lanbert was listed in 1901. The company appears to have been primarily concerned with sugar and lasts at least into the mid 1920’s.

I found two small round bottles embossed identically “D Cameron New York”. As a result, they could date prior to 1884 when Donald Stuart joined his father Donald in business but certainly no later than 1894 when the only company name listed was L V B Cameron & Co. The bottles are also embossed with a trade mark depicting a raised sword.

I was contacted by a relative of the Camerons who read the initial version of this post and pointed out to me that the old crest of the Cameron clan in Scotland is described as follows:

A dexter arm embowed in armour, the hand grasping a sword, all proper, encircled by a belt and buckle.

The trademark on the bottle and the crest are certainly a match so the trademark design must have been influenced by Donald Cameron’s childhood roots in Scotland.

Many thanks to her for pointing this out as well as all the other information she provided. It’s what makes this all fun!


Alart & McGuire, OK Pickles

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Alart & McGuire’s proprietors were Peter Alart and James F McGuire. According to the “American Trade Index 1911 – 1913” Alart & McGuires products were pickles, olives, sauces, capers, mustard, vinegar, ketchup and sauerkraut.

Peter Alart was listed individually within the NYC Directories beginning in 1872/1873 as pickles at 58 Harrison Street. After that, from 1873 to 1881 the firm of Alart & Rossitor was listed as pickles first at 58 Harrison Street, then 99 North Moore Street and finally at 402 Greenwich Street. Then in 1882 the name of the business changed and Alart & McGuire was listed for the first time at the 402 Greenwich Street address. In 1888 the business moved to their long time address at 68-70 Madison Street. An 1888 advertisement on the New Jersey Trade Review also referred to Alart & McGuire as the Westchester Pickle Works and also mentions the “OK” trademark.


The business was highlighted in the 1888 edition of “Illustrated New York, The Metropolis of Today” giving the following snapshot description of the business at that time:

The largest and most important enterprise of its kind in New York is the Westchester Pickle Works conducted under the enterprising proprietorship of Messrs. Alart & Mcguire at No.s 68 and 70 Madison Street. The firm enjoys a national reputation as extensive manufacturers of, and wholesale dealers in, pickles, vinegar and catsup and they have been established in the business here since 1868. They operate large and finely equipped factories and pickle houses in New York, Sing Sing and Dobbs Ferry and are also widely known as importers and bottlers of sauerkraut, pickles, onions and cauliflowers for the trade.

The building occupied by them on Madison Street is four stories high, 50 x 125 feet in dimension and equipped with a full complement of machinery and appliances for the business operated by steam power while everything tending to facilitate and perfect production is added as soon as it appears. One hundred skilled and expert hands are constantly employed and every modern facility is at hand to insure the prompt and satisfactory fulfillment of orders.

According to the Oyster Bay Historical Society, a significant portion of the cucumber crop needed for pickling came from the north shore of Long Island and by the early 1880’s north shore farmers were shipping two thousand barrels of cucumbers into New York every day for pickling. To reduce shipping costs Alart & McGuire began building and operating pickling facilities on Long Island. One of the first, completed in 1890 was in Syosset near the LIRR train station for easy access to shipping. Another in Mattituck was built in 1889.

In the 1912 NYC Copartnership and Corporation Directory they were listed as a NY corporation with T Burt Mcquire (son?) as president, still located at the Madison Street location. Sometime around 1914 they moved to Brooklyn and they were still listed there in the 1922 Copartnership and Corporation Directory for Brooklyn and Queens at 88 35th Street.

Arnold Bros. Pickle and Preserve Company purchased the business in 1925. Today they are part of Bay Valley Foods, a division of Treehouse Foods Inc., and the largest pickle supplier in the U.S.

The building at the 68-70 Madison Street location no longer exists. It is now a large set back apartment building.

The bottle I found is a small mouth blown bottle with the “Alart & McGuire Pickles” and “OK Trade Mark” embossed on the base.